Salah, S., A. A.mahmoud, and A. O.kamel, "Etodolac transdermal cubosomes for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis:ex vivo permeation and pharmacokinetic studies", Drug delivery, vol. 24(1), issue 1071-7544, pp. 846-856, 2017.
Mahmoud, A. A., and S. Salah, "Fast relief from migraine attacks using fast-disintegrating sublingual zolmitriptan tablets.", Drug development and industrial pharmacy, vol. 38, issue 6, pp. 762-9, 2012 Jun. Abstract

Zolmitriptan is a potent molecule for treatment of migraine. Its current oral therapies present drawbacks such as slow onset of action, low bioavailability and large inter-subject variability. Fast disintegrating sublingual zolmitriptan tablet (FDST) using freeze-drying technique has been developed to enhance tablet disintegration and dissolution with the intention of speeding drug absorption and onset of effect, hence mitigating the effects on the gastrointestinal dysmotility that typically accompanies the migraine attack. The FDSTs were prepared using different concentrations of gelatin as binder and mannitol or L-alanine as matrix supporting/disintegration enhancing agents. The effect of formulation variables on the physicochemical and solid-state properties, as well as the dissolution behaviour of the tablets, was studied. The formulated FDSTs disintegrated within 30 s and showed significantly faster dissolution rate of zolmitriptan compared to the zolmitriptan oral tablet. Tablet containing 2% gelatin and mannitol showed acceptable weight variation, drug content and friability values. Furthermore, it had a low in-vitro and in-vivo disintegration time (11 s) and it reached 100% of drug release within 30 s. This sublingual formulation gave faster and higher zolmitriptan plasma concentration in rabbits compared to the oral zolmetriptan market product. Zolmitriptan FDST may therefore constitute an advance in the management of acute migraine attacks.

Abdelbary, G., M. Amin, and S. Salah, "Self nano-emulsifying simvastatin based tablets: design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.", Pharmaceutical development and technology, vol. 18, issue 6, pp. 1294-304, 2013 Nov-Dec. Abstract

The aim of this work is to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug, simvastatin (SV) through combining the advantages of self-nanoemulsifying systems (SNEs) and tablets. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using Labrafil, Tween 80 and Transcutol, in order to evaluate self-nanoemulsification domain. The particle size distribution and zeta potential of the prepared systems were evaluated using Malvern Zetasizer. Liquisolid powders were prepared using Aeroperl(®) as a coating material and Avicel(®) or Starch 1500 as carrier materials, the powder flow properties were then evaluated. Compressed SV SNE based tablets were evaluated regarding their physical characteristics, in-vitro release properties as well as in-vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in six healthy human volunteers using a validated LC/MS/MS method. The in-vitro release results revealed that the developed SNE based tablets improved the release of SV significantly, compared to commercially available SV tablets (Zocor(®)). The optimal SV SNE tablet formulation was S3St10 (10% Labrafil, 60% Tween 80, and 30% Transcutol). The in-vivo evaluation of S3St10 revealed that rapid and enhanced absorption of SV could be obtained from the SNE based tablet, with a 1.5 fold increase in bioavailability than that obtained after administration of Zocor(®). Hence such an approach could be promising in improving the bioavailability of SV.

Mobarak, D. H., S. Salah, and S. A. Elkheshen, "Formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: optimization of technique and process variables.", Pharmaceutical development and technology, vol. 19, issue 7, pp. 891-900, 2014 Nov. Abstract

UNLABELLED: Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA 502 H) nanoparticles incorporating ciprofloxacin HCl (CP) were prepared by double emulsion solvent diffusion technique.

METHODS: The influence of the application of probe sonication besides the high pressure homogenization in the preparation of the secondary emulsion and its application during the solidification step were studied. Their effect on the particle size, Zeta potential and the percent encapsulation efficiency of the drug (EE %) were investigated. The effect of the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during the preparation of the primary emulsion was studied. Moreover, the effect of the addition of 0.1 M sodium chloride and/or adjusting the external and extracting phases to pH 7.4 were investigated. The selected formula was examined using IR, X-ray, DSC and SEM and in vitro drug release.

RESULTS: These formulations showed an appropriate particle size ranges between 135.7-187.85 nm, a mean zeta potential ranging from -0.839 to -6.81 mV and a mean EE% which ranged from 35% to 69%.

CONCLUSION: The presented data revealed the superiority of using probe sonication besides high pressure homogenization during the formation of secondary emulsion. Moreover, the results indicated that the tested factors had a pronounced significant effect on the EE%.

Ibrahim, H. K., and S. Salah, "Formulation of venlafaxine for once daily administration using polymeric material hybrids.", Journal of microencapsulation, vol. 33, issue 4, pp. 299-306, 2016 Jun. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Controlled release venlafaxine for once daily administration.

METHODS: Drug resin complexation followed by polymer encapsulation. A 4(1).2(1) factorial design was used to study the effect of polymer type and core: coat ratio on the release profile and kinetics. Polymer combinations were tried for optimisation adapting the desIMNCility function. The optimised formula was tested in rabbits against commercial extended release capsules.

RESULTS: Poly-epsilon-caprolactone, poly(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) ester and poly(d, l-lactide) ester polymers were more efficient in lowering the release rate and the initial burst release than Eudragit(®)RS100. Encapsulation at 1:1 ratio ensured complete coats and drug release sustainment. Formula prepared using 50:50 PLA/Eudragit at 1:1 ratio sustained the drug release up to 24 h with low burst release. This formula had higher venlafaxine absorption in rabbits compared to the commercial capsules.

CONCLUSIONS: The optimised formula is superior to the available once-daily trials regarding enhanced bioavailability, dosage form versatility and ease of scaling up.