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Mohamed Sharaf, H., H. H. Zeineldin, D. K. Ibrahim, and E. E. D. A. El Zahab, "Protection coordination of directional overcurrent relays considering fault current direction", Proceedings of the 5th IEEE conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2014, Istanbul, Turkey, IEEE, pp. 1 - 5, 2014. Abstract


Mohamed, S. H., Z. H. H., D. K. Ibrahim, and A. E. L. - Z. E. EL-Din, "A Proposed Coordination Strategy for Meshed Distribution Systems with DG Considering User-defined Characteristics of Directional Inverse Time Overcurrent Relays", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy systems, vol. 65: Elsevier, pp. 49 - 58, 2015. Abstract


Ibrahim, I. M., D. K. Ibrahim, and E. E. D. A. El Zahab, "A proposed busbar protection scheme immune to the impact of outflow current during internal faults", 2016 International Middle-East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON),, Helwan University, Egypt, IEEE, pp. 921 - 926, 2016. Abstract


Younis, R. A., D. K. Ibrahim, E. M.Aboul-Zahab, and A. ’fotouh El'Gharably, "Power Management Regulation Control Integrated with Demand Side Management for Stand-alone Hybrid Microgrid Considering Battery Degradation", International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 9, issue 4, pp. 1912-1923, 2019. Abstract

A new Power Management Regulation Control (PMRC) integrated with Demand Side Management (DSM) strategies is proposed to enhance the Energy Management System (EMS) of a stand-alone hybrid microgrid. The microgrid combines Wind and PV systems as Renewable Energy Sources (RES) with a hybrid Energy Storage System (ESS) of Battery and Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer set. Towards achieving Net Zero Energy Supply, such microgrid is adequate in remote and isolated new communities with AC controllable critical and noncritical loads. The proposed PMRC implies two-levels of control based on Multi-Agent System (MAS). The first level keeps the output power of each source in its maximum available output power by applying maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques. The second level is based on making proper decisions for achieving the power balancing regulation and coordination between the available and the reserve power of the RES and ESS under different operating modes. Valley Filling, Energy Conservation and Load Shifting are applied as DSM strategies to improve loads sustainability during system contingencies. Considering the battery as the most expensive part in the microgrid, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is further verified by determining the maximum permissible estimated battery lifetime during the operation in all possible scenarios. Extensive simulation studies for various scenarios of microgrid operation in a year were carried out using Matlab/ Simulink with realistic typical wind speed, solar irradiation data and restricted by the status of available ESS.

Boghdady, T. A., M. Mahmoud, E. A. Zahab, E. Tag-Eldin, and M. Sayed, "Power Level Control of Nuclear Power Plants During Load Following Operation Using Fractional Order Controller Based on a Modified Algorithm", IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 134382–134403, 2023. Abstract

Nuclear power can play an important role to achieve a secure clean energy transition. Output power control is considered an important issue with respect to nuclear power plants (NPPs) especially during load following operation mode. In this study, a scheduled fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller is designed in order to track the desired reference power for a nuclear reactor in a NPP. Also, a modified manta ray foraging optimization (MMRFO) algorithm is proposed to tune the five parameters of the FOPID controller. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with several optimization techniques using 23 benchmark functions. The comparison shows that MMRFO has the best performance. The simulation of the FOPID controller tuned by the proposed MMRFO algorithm is performed using MATLAB/Simulink and its performance is compared with classic PID controller tuned by the MMRFO algorithm. Two different dynamic simulations during load following operation of a nuclear reactor are carried out. The first case study covers the short time operation of a nuclear reactor and the second case covers the long time operation. The simulation results show an acceptable performance with high degree of accuracy for the proposed FOPID controller tuned by the modified algorithm with very low overshoot, very low steady state error and proper control signal. Also, the stability of the proposed controller is also tested using Lyapunov stability criterion which indicates the stable operation for the proposed controller in the two cases. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been accomplished which indicates the robustness of the controller.