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2020
Shehata, T., M. A. S. moteleb, and E. M. A. El-Zahab, "STATCOM controllers based on fuzzy PI approach", Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 18, issue 3, pp. 1138-1147, 2020. Abstract

The electricity companies enforced some legislation on the electricity consumption contracts because the electricity network cannot bear the increasing demands of consumers. Therefore, a new controlling system is required to improve the frequent variations of the power system operating point (OP). Consequently, the flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controllers should be able to integrate with recent OP. Coordination of FACTS controller is more sophisticated due to various OP and uncertainties parametric in cooperation with the non linearity of power system (PS). Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) plays very important role like the stability support of large and small transient-disturbance in PS. Therefore, the aim of this research is presents fuzzy logic (FL) with the PI controller (a novel controller) its ability to improve the performance of the power system along with the capability of switch irregular and rough actual world data. This new controlling system may be suitable for a wide range of applications especially the models which deal with huge and complicated data analysis. This new controller system carries out the adjustments of the voltage on DC capacitor under transient and steady-state conditions.

Younis, R. A., D. K. Ibrahim, E. M.Aboul-Zahab, and A. ’fotouh El'Gharably, "Techno-economic investigation using several metaheuristic algorithms for optimal sizing of stand-alone microgrid incorporating hybrid renewable energy sources and hybrid energy storage system", International Journal on Energy Conversion (I.R.E.CON.), vol. 8, issue 4, pp. 141- 152, 2020. Abstract

Increasing energy demand worldwide has resulted in more penetration of renewable sources for developing non-polluted electric energy despite their prices are not economically competitive to traditional generation systems due to intermittent nature of renewable resources. Energy storage systems are used to counteract the intermittent nature of renewable sources. Therefore, the optimal sizing and design of stand-alone renewable generating systems is a significant concern to get a more cost-effective system. This paper focuses on achieving the optimum design and size of a microgrid to meet the load requirements and reducing the total cost including capital, investment, operational and maintenance costs. For this aim, the sizing problem is formulated to be solved using three well-known metaheuristic algorithms, namely, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) and Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO). The employed microgrid comprises hybrid renewable energy sources of PV/Wind systems integrated with a hybrid energy storage system of Battery and FC/Electrolyzer set for supplying AC loads located in Zafarana, Egypt. On the basis of real meteorological data of the studied location, the produced energies from the renewable sources are estimated using MATLAB developed algorithms. The simulation results showed that the optimized design using CSO can robustly and efficiently yield the optimal design of a microgrid.

2021
Abo-Hamad, G. M., D. K. Ibrahim, E. A. M. Zahab, and A. F. Zobaa, "Adaptive Mho Distance Protection for Interconnected Transmission Lines Compensated with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor", Energies , vol. 14, issue 9, pp. Article 2477, 2021. Abstract

This paper proposes an adaptive dynamic Mho distance relay based on a phase comparator scheme for protecting interconnected transmission networks compensated with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC). The proposed relay uses an impedance index factor to initiate the fault detection subroutine. The RMS of the positive sequence current of the faulted loop and the TCSC terminal current are compared for TCSC zone identification. A phase comparator for ground and phase distance elements is proposed, relying on the positive sequence voltage as a polarized memory quantity, while the operating and polarizing quantities are developed using estimated TCSC impedance to mitigate its negative impact. The proposed scheme is easy in implementation and independent on synchronized data transfer, as minimum communication requirements are needed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, extensive simulation studies were carried out on an IEEE9 bus system compensated with TCSC for different firing angles covering four modes of TCSC operations, different fault types, and fault locations. In addition, an IEEE-39 bus network, as a large interconnected system, is tested for validation purposes. The achieved results designate the precision of the proposed scheme. Moreover, the results indicate its effectiveness for fault resistance tolerance, close-in three phase faults, and stable power swing phenomenon compared with conventional relays.

Abo-Hamad, G. M., D. K. Ibrahim, E. A. M. Zahab, and A. F. Zobaa, "Dynamic Quadrilateral Characteristic-Based Distance Relays for Transmission Lines Equipped with TCSC", Energies , vol. 14, issue 21, pp. Article 7074, 2021. Abstract

A two-fold adaptive dynamic quadrilateral relay is developed in this research for protecting Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)-compensated transmission lines (TLs). By investigating a new tilt angle and modifying the Takagi method to recognize the fault zone identifier, the proposed relay adapts its reactive reach and resistive reach separately and independently. The investigated tilt angle and identified fault zone use the TCSC reactance to compensate its effect on the TL parameters and system homogeneity. Excessive tests are simulated by MATLAB on the non-homogenous network, IEEE-9 bus system and further tests are carried out on IEEE-39 bus system in order to generalize and validate the efficiency of the proposed approach. The designed trip boundaries are able to detect wide range of resistive faults under all TCSC modes of operations. The proposed approach is easy to implement as there no need for data synchronization or a high level of computation and filtration. Moreover, the proposed adaptive dynamic relay can be applied for non-homogeneity systems and short as well as long TLs which are either TCSC-compensated or -uncompensated TLs.

2022
Boghdady, T. A., S. G. A. Nasser, and E. E. - D. A. Zahab, "Energy harvesting maximization by integration of distributed generation based on economic benefits", Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 25, issue 12, pp. 610-625, 2022. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of distributed generation systems (DGS) is to enhance the distribution system (DS) performance to be better known with its benefits in the power sector as installing distributed generation (DG) units into the DS can introduce economic, environmental and technical benefits. Those benefits can be obtained if the DG units' site and size is properly determined. The aim of this paper is studying and reviewing the effect of connecting DG units in the DS on transmission efficiency, reactive power loss and voltage deviation in addition to the economical point of view and considering the interest and inflation rate. Whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is introduced to find the best solution to the distributed generation penetration problem in the DS. The result of WOA is compared with the genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and grey wolf optimizer (GWO). The proposed solutions methodologies have been tested using MATLAB software on IEEE 33 standard bus system.

Boghdady, T. A., M. M. Ibrahim, E. A. Zahab, and M. Sayed, "Output power control of nuclear reactor using ant lion optimization-based controller", Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 26, issue 3, pp. 1299-1305, 2022. Abstract

Power level control is a critical issue in nuclear power stations due to its nonlinear dynamics. One of the most commonly used controllers is fractional order proportional–integral–derivative (FOPID). The FOPID is an enhanced and modern controlling system that has two additional added parameters. In this paper, comparison between particle swarm, gray wolf and ant lion optimization techniques is performed to determine the FOPID controller parameters. The nuclear reactor is a pressurized water reactor which is a fifth order nonlinear reactor model and is simulated using MATLAB software based on the point kinetic model. The integral square error (ISE) performance index is used to evaluate the performance of the three optimization techniques. The simulation results show that ant lion optimization for tuning the FOPID controller parameters gives the best performance and integral square error index better than the two other optimization techniques.

2023
Refaat, M. M., S. A. H. E. Aleem, Yousry Atia, E. E. D. A. Zahab, and M. M. Sayed, "A New Decision-Making Strategy for Techno-Economic Assessment of Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning for Modern Power Systems", systems, vol. 11, issue 23, pp. 23, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Planning for the intensive use of renewable energy sources (RESs) has attracted wide attention to limit global warming and meet future load growth. Existing studies have shown that installing projects such as transmission lines, energy storage systems (ESSs), fault current limiters, and FACTs facilitate the integration of RESs into power systems. Different generation and transmission network expansion planning models have been developed in the literature; however, a planning model that manages multiple types of projects while maximizing the hosting capacity (HC) is not widely presented. In this paper, a novel planning framework is proposed to enhance and control the HC level of RESs by comparing various kinds of renewables, ESSs, fault current limiters, and FACTs to choose the right one, economically and technically. The proposed problem is formulated as a challenging mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem. To solve it, a solution methodology based on a developed decision-making approach and an improved meta-heuristic algorithm is developed. The decision-making approach aims to keep the number of decision variables as fixed as possible, regardless of the number of projects planned. While an improved war strategy optimizer that relies on the Runge-Kutta learning strategy is applied to strengthen the global search ability. The proposed decision-making approach depends primarily on grouping candidate projects that directly impact the same system state into four separate planning schemes. The first scheme relies on the impedance of devices installed in any path to optimally identify the location and size of the new circuits and the series-type FACTs. The second scheme is based on optimally determining the suitable types of ESSs. On the other hand, the third scheme optimizes the reactive power dispatched from the ESSs and shunt-type FACTs simultaneously. The fourth scheme is concerned with regulating the power dispatched from different types of RESs. All of the simulations, which were carried out on the Garver network and the 118-bus system, demonstrated the ability of the investigated model to select the appropriate projects precisely. Further, the results proved the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method in obtaining high-quality solutions in fewer runs compared to the conventional method.

Elaraby, H. M., A. M. Ibrahim, M. Rawa, E. E. L. - D. A. EL-Zahab, and S. A. H. E. Aleem, "Optimal Allocation of Active and Reactive Power Compensators and Voltage Regulators in Modern Distribution Systems", Modernization of Electric Power Systems: Energy Efficiency and Power Quality: Springer, 2023. Abstract

Improving the performance of distribution networks is a primary target for power system operators. Besides, energy resource limitations and cost-effective distribution of electricity to the consumers encourage engineers, distribution system operators, and researchers to increase the efficiency of electric power distribution systems. Fortunately, many technologies can effectively make such improvements. Active and reactive power compensators such as distributed generators (DGs) and shunt capacitor banks (SCBs) are examples of compensators that can effectively make such improvements in modern radial distribution systems (RDSs), in addition to using recent techniques such as energy storage technologies. Voltage regulators (VRs) can also help these compensators function better in a much more effective techno-economic manner in RDSs, enhance voltage profiles and load stability, and reduce voltage deviations from acceptable values. Unfortunately, rising project investment may result if uneconomic facilities or expensive technologies are used to reduce electric losses significantly. Therefore, economic considerations related to the installed equipment in the networks should be considered. In this regard, the well-known whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is applied in this work to allocate DGs, SCBs, and VRs in a realistic 37-bus distribution system to minimize power losses while conforming with several linear and nonlinear constraints. A cost-benefit analysis of the optimization problem is made in terms of – investment and running costs of the compensators used; saving gained from the power loss reduction, and benefits from decreasing the power to be purchased from the grid; reducing voltage deviations and overloading; and enhancing voltage stability (VS). Three loading scenarios are considered in this work – light, shoulder, and peak levels of load demand. The numerical findings obtained show a noteworthy techno-economic improvement of the quality of power (QoP) performance level of the RDS and approve the efficiency and economic benefits of the proposed solutions compared to other solutions in the literature.

Boghdady, T. A., M. Mahmoud, E. A. Zahab, E. Tag-Eldin, and M. Sayed, "Power Level Control of Nuclear Power Plants During Load Following Operation Using Fractional Order Controller Based on a Modified Algorithm", IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 134382–134403, 2023. Abstract

Nuclear power can play an important role to achieve a secure clean energy transition. Output power control is considered an important issue with respect to nuclear power plants (NPPs) especially during load following operation mode. In this study, a scheduled fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller is designed in order to track the desired reference power for a nuclear reactor in a NPP. Also, a modified manta ray foraging optimization (MMRFO) algorithm is proposed to tune the five parameters of the FOPID controller. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with several optimization techniques using 23 benchmark functions. The comparison shows that MMRFO has the best performance. The simulation of the FOPID controller tuned by the proposed MMRFO algorithm is performed using MATLAB/Simulink and its performance is compared with classic PID controller tuned by the MMRFO algorithm. Two different dynamic simulations during load following operation of a nuclear reactor are carried out. The first case study covers the short time operation of a nuclear reactor and the second case covers the long time operation. The simulation results show an acceptable performance with high degree of accuracy for the proposed FOPID controller tuned by the modified algorithm with very low overshoot, very low steady state error and proper control signal. Also, the stability of the proposed controller is also tested using Lyapunov stability criterion which indicates the stable operation for the proposed controller in the two cases. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been accomplished which indicates the robustness of the controller.

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