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Elhusseiny, A. M., Y. M. El Sayed, R. H. El Sheikh, G. I. Gawdat, and H. M. Elhilali, "Circumferential Schlemm's Canal Surgery in Adult and Pediatric Glaucoma.", Current eye research, pp. 1-10, 2019. Abstract

Although trabeculectomy, and to a less extent glaucoma drainage devices are currently the gold standard in glaucoma surgery, there is a rising interest in addressing the more physiological pathway of aqueous outflow through surgeries that target Schlemm's canal (SC). These surgeries have the advantage of a lower risk of hypotony and bleb-related complications commonly associated with conventional glaucoma surgery.In this article we review new developments and the different techniques of circumferential angle surgery in adult and pediatric glaucoma, as well as procedures which target the canal circumferentially without incising it, such as canaloplasty and Visco360. A comprehensive literature search of various electronic databases was performed. Angle surgery, namely goniotomy and trabeculotomy, have been well established as standard procedures in pediatric glaucoma, yet their results in the management of adult glaucoma have not been as promising. In recent years, ab-interno trabeculectomy using Trabectome and Kahook dual blade have yielded variable results in adult glaucoma. As growing evidence suggests that bigger extent incisions into SC result in increased lowering of intraocular pressure than conventional 120 to 180-degree incisions, several procedures have been developed to create a circumferential incision into SC. Circumferential SC incision using sutures, microcatheters, TRAB360 or the rigid probe trabeculotome, through an ab-interno or ab-externo approach, have yielded promising results in both adult and pediatric glaucoma by reducing the resistance to aqueous outflow through the inner wall of SC over 360 degrees of the angle. Various techniques of circumferential Schlemm's canal surgery is effective in management of different adult and pediatric glaucomas. Further long-term comparative studies would be useful in evaluating safety and efficacy of these procedures.

YM, E. S., "Corneoscleral rim patching in paediatric glaucoma", ESCRS winter meeting, Warsaw, 2013.
MS, E. - A., E. S. YM, H. RM, and E. HM, "Correlation of corneal endothelial changes with different stages of keratoconus", Cornea, vol. 33, issue 7, pp. 707-711, 2014.
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YM, E. S., "Differential corneal thickness in paediatric eyes implanted with a glaucoma drainage device", American Academy of Ophthalmology Meeting, Chicago, 2014.
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Elsayed, Y., H. el Hayouty, and H. E. Hilaly, "The Effect of Lens Surgery on Intraocular Pressure Control in Eyes with Pediatric Glaucoma", ASCRS, Los Angeles, Californea, USA, 8 May, 2017.
Eissa, I. M., N. B. Abu Hussein, A. E. Habib, and Y. M. El Sayed, "Examining Delay Intervals in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in an Egyptian Population and Its Impact on Lifestyle.", Journal of ophthalmology, vol. 2016, pp. 7012826, 2016. Abstract

Purpose. To examine causes as well as extent of delay in diagnosis and treatment of primary open angle glaucoma patients in a sample of Egyptians. Patients and Methods. 440 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were interviewed to evaluate delay in their diagnosis and treatment. The extent and cause of delay were investigated. The total delay interval, if any, was correlated with socioeconomic and other factors. Results. The median total delay was one year, with 50% of patients having a total delay of 1 year or less, of which 25% exhibited zero total delay. 25% of patients had a delay ranging from 1 to 3 years, and 25% had a total delay ranging from 3 to 27 years. Diagnostic delay accounted for 43.03% of cases. Longer delays were met in patients with certain socioeconomic factors. Patients with a positive family history of glaucoma displayed shorter delay periods. Conclusion. Significant delay in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma was found. Poor socioeconomic status seems to hinder timely diagnosis and treatment of POAG. Certain socioeconomic factors seem to correlate with the extent of delay. More effort is thus needed to subsidize the cost of investigations and treatment for glaucoma patients.

A, A., and E. S. YM, "Excision of Tenon Capsule in Pediatric Trabeculectomy: A Controlled Study", Journal of Glaucoma, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 39-44, 2016.
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Elsayed, Y., A. Esmael, N. Mettias, Z. El Sanabary, and G. Gawdat, "Factors influencing the outcome of goniotomy and trabeculotomy in primary congenital glaucoma.", The British journal of ophthalmology, 2019 Mar 07. Abstract

PURPOSE: To study the prognostic factors influencing intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and success rates of paediatric goniotomy and trabeculotomy.

PATIENTS: Data from patients aged ≤12 years who underwent goniotomy or trabeculotomy for primary congenital glaucoma from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed. The analysis included 452 eyes of which 120 eyes of patients with a median age (IQR) of 6 months (4.1-11 months) underwent , and 332 eyes of patients with a median age of 5.2 months (2.3-9.3 months) underwent .

METHODS: Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to predict the correlation of preoperative and operative risk factors to the per cent IOP reduction, while multivariate logistic regression was done to determine independent predictors of failure. Failure was defined as a final IOP >18 mm Hg while on medications or the need for another glaucoma procedure.

RESULTS: In the , the median IOP reduction was 19.4% and was positively correlated to a high initial IOP (p≤0.001) while in the it was 36.8% and mostly influenced by preoperative IOP (p≤0.001), corneal clarity (p=0.04), gender (p=0.04) and consanguinity (p=0.03). The failure rate in the was 56% and was influenced by the preoperative cup-to-disc ratio, while in the it was 30% and strongly correlated to positive consanguinity (p≤0.001), higher preoperative IOP (p=0.003), female gender (p=0.01) and younger age at surgery (p=0.03).

CONCLUSION: Several factors can predict the outcome of angle surgery and can help in deciding the appropriate surgical intervention in paediatric glaucoma. Trabeculotomy seems to be superior to goniotomy in primary congenital glaucoma.

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El Sayed, Y. M., and G. I. Gawdat, "Microcatheter-assisted Trabeculotomy Versus 2-site Trabeculotomy With the Rigid Probe Trabeculotome in Primary Congenital Glaucoma.", Journal of glaucoma, vol. 27, issue 4, pp. 371-376, 2018 Apr. Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy to circumferential trabeculotomy using the rigid probe trabeculotome in primary congenital glaucoma.

METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in an institutional setting. The medical records of primary congenital glaucoma patients who underwent circumferential trabeculotomy (≥270 degrees incised) using Glaucolight-illuminated microcatheter or a rigid probe trabeculotome were reviewed. The primary outcomes were the percent reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and success rates. Complete success was defined as achieving an IOP<18 mm Hg without medications. Secondary outcomes were the postoperative IOP and glaucoma medications.

RESULTS: The study included 92 eyes of 92 patients. Of these, 33 eyes of 33 patients aged 6.4±8.7 months underwent microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy creating a 336±34-degree incision, with 19 eyes (58%) having a complete 360-degree incision. The other 59 eyes of 59 patients aged 8.2±13.1 months underwent 2-site trabeculotomy, using a rigid probe trabeculotome through a combined superonasal and inferotemporal approach, creating a 338±29-degree incision, with 33 eyes (56%) having a complete incision. After a follow-up of 21.2±8.9 months, there was a 42%±25% IOP reduction and a 73% rate of complete success in the microcatheter group, compared with 40%±22% IOP reduction and an 80% success rate in the rigid probe group (P=0.7 and 0.3, respectively). There was no significant difference in survival time in both groups (P=0.6).

CONCLUSION: Circumferential trabeculotomy using either the illuminated microcatheter or rigid probe trabeculotome yielded comparable results; however, the added cost of the microcatheter should be considered.

Abdelrahman, A. M., and Y. M. El Sayed, "Micropulse Versus Continuous Wave Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation in Refractory Pediatric Glaucoma.", Journal of glaucoma, vol. 27, issue 10, pp. 900-905, 2018 Oct. Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of micropulse cyclophotocoagulation (MP-CPC) and transscleral continuous wave cyclophotocoagulation (CW-CPC) for the treatment of refractory glaucoma in the pediatric age group.

METHODS: This prospective study included 45 eyes of 36 children requiring transscleral cyclophotocoagulation, in the period spanning from September 2016 to August 2017, using micropulse (MP-CPC) or continuous wave (CW-CPC) modes. The intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, success rates, and complications were compared for both groups. Success was defined as an IOP of 5 to 21 mm Hg, in the absence of vision-threatening complications at 6 months.

RESULTS: The MP-CPC group included 17 eyes, in patients aged 67.8±48 months, and the CW-CPC group included 28 eyes, in patients aged 61.3±38.3 months. There was a tendency toward lower IOP in the MP-CPC group at all follow-ups, almost reaching statistical significance at 2 weeks and 3 months (P=0.05). IOP reduction was 63% in the MP-CPC group and 67% in the CW-CPC group (P=0.6). The success rate was higher in the MP-CPC group (71% vs. 46% in the CW-CPC group), but the difference was not significant (P=0.1). No significant complications were noted in the MP-CPC group whereas, in the CW-CPC group, 1 eye developed phthisis bulbi, and 2 eyes had severe pain and uveitis (P=0.3).

CONCLUSIONS: Both the MP-CPC and CW-CPC are effective in lowering the IOP in children with refractory glaucoma. However, the rate of complications, pain, and inflammation seem to be lower with the micropulse mode, making it a safer alternative for cyclophotocoagulation, especially since retreatments are often needed.

YM, E. S., "Mini-trabeculotomy in paediatric glaucoma", World Glaucoma Conference, Vancouver, 2013.
El Sayed, Y. M., A. M. Elhusseiny, A. S. Albalkini, R. H. El Sheikh, and M. A. Osman, "Mitomycin C-augmented Phacotrabeculectomy Versus Phacoemulsification in Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma: A Randomized Controlled Study.", Journal of glaucoma, 2019. Abstract

PRECIS: Phacotrabeculectomy yielded similar results to phacoemulsification in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering, glaucoma medications and success rates. Although releasable sutures may have reduced the risk of hypotony; complications and interventions were more common with phacotrabeculectomy.

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy using releasable sutures and adjunctive mitomycin C versus phacoemulsification alone in the management of PACG.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 63 eyes of 63 PACG patients were randomized to undergo either mitomycin C-augmented phacotrabeculectomy with tight scleral flap closure using releasable sutures aiming at no flow or phacoemulsification alone. The primary outcomes were success rates and complications. Secondary outcomes were IOP and glaucoma medications.

RESULTS: The IOP and glaucoma medications were significantly reduced at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively in both groups (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in IOP, IOP reduction, success rates, or survival times between both groups. Glaucoma medications were only significantly lower in the phacotrabeculectomy group at 1 and 3 months. The rates of postoperative interventions and complications were higher in the phacotrabeculectomy group. Complete success, defined as an IOP of 6 to 21 mm Hg on no medications and with no signs of glaucoma progression, was achieved in 58% in the phacotrabeculectomy group, compared with 62% in the phacoemulsification group (P=0.9). Only 2 eyes (6%) in the phacoemulsification group required a subsequent trabeculectomy.

CONCLUSIONS: Trabeculectomy did not seem to add an advantage when combined with phacoemulsification in PACG patients and was associated with more postoperative interventions. Despite the use of releasable sutures to allow titration of the IOP postoperatively, the rate of hypotony and other complications was higher in the phacotrabeculectomy group.

AM, A., and E. S. YM, "Modified reverse scleral flap dissection during glaucoma surgery", World Glaucoma Congress, Paris, 2011.
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YM, E. S., "Overview of PCG", World Ophthalmology Conference, Abu Dhabi, 2012.
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YM, E. S., "Pitfalls and pearls in paediatric glaucoma surgery", Nigerian Ophthalmology Society Annual meeting, Lagos, 2011.
AM, A., and E. S. YM, "Prolene Canalostenting in Deep Sclerectomy: A Pilot Study", Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol., vol. 22, issue 4, pp. 514-516, 2015.
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AM, A., and E. S. YM, "Repeat trabeculectomy", THE ISGS TEXT BOOK OF GLAUCOMA SURGERY: Jaypee, 2014.
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Shuaib, A. M., Y. Elsayed, A. Kamal, Z. El Sanabary, and H. Elhilali, "Transscleral sutureless intraocular lens versus retropupillary iris-claw lens fixation for paediatric aphakia without capsular support: a randomized study.", Acta ophthalmologica, 2019. Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare results of sutureless transscleral intraocular lens (IOL) fixation to retropupillary iris-claw lens implantation in cases of paediatric aphakia without capsular support.

METHODS: Thirty eyes of children with insufficient capsular support for IOL implantation were randomized to undergo sutureless transscleral IOL fixation or iris-claw lens fixation. The primary outcome was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary outcomes included operative time, astigmatism, central corneal thickness, endothelial cell count (ECC), IOL decentration and tilt, central foveal thickness and complications.

RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in BCVA at all follow-up visits, with no significant difference between both groups. 53.3% in the transscleral-fixated IOL group and 80% in the iris-claw IOL group had a final BCVA ≥0.3. The operative time was significantly shorter in the iris-claw IOL group (p = 0.001). IOL decentration and tilt were higher in the transscleral-fixated IOL group, but the difference was not significant. The ECC was reduced by 14.6% in the transscleral-fixated IOL group and 11% in the iris-claw group at 6 months, with no significant difference between both groups (p = 0.5). In the transscleral-fixated IOL group, two eyes developed ocular hypertension and two eyes had IOL decentration, while in the iris-claw IOL group, 1 eye developed glaucoma, three eyes had haptic disenclavation, and one eye had retinal detachment.

CONCLUSION: Both techniques yielded a comparable visual outcome. Retropupillary iris-claw lens fixation is a shorter procedure and technically easier than sutureless transscleral fixation, but the risk of disenclavation should be considered especially in younger age groups. Scleral fixation is the only option in case of severe iris damage, but may be associated with more endothelial cell loss.

Elsayed, Y., and G. Gawdat, "Two-year results of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy in paediatric glaucoma: a randomized controlled study.", Acta ophthalmologica, vol. 95, issue 8, pp. e713-e719, 2017 Dec. Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of microcatheter-assisted circumferential trabeculotomy to standard rigid probe trabeculotomy in childhood glaucomas.

METHODS: Eyes of children requiring trabeculotomy for primary congenital or secondary paediatric glaucoma were randomized to undergo either trabeculotomy using the Glaucolight illuminated microcatheter, or a rigid probe trabeculotomy. Complete success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) of <18 mmHg without medications.

RESULTS: A total of 62 eyes of 62 patients were included. Of these 30 eyes of 30 patients aged 5.6 ± 4.8 months underwent microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy, with 15 eyes (50%) having a complete 360° cut, while 15 eyes (50%) had an incomplete cut ranging from 250 to 350 degrees. The rigid probe trabeculotomy group included 32 eyes of 32 patients aged 4.4 ± 3.8 months. At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, the complete success and the failure rates were 67% and 15%, respectively, in the microcatheter-assisted group versus 47% and 50% in the rigid probe trabeculotomy group (p = 0.006). There was a tendency towards lower IOP in the microcatheter group at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively, with the difference in IOP reaching statistical significance at 6 months (p = 0.004). The mean survival time was significantly longer for the microcatheter group (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: At 2 years postoperatively, microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy still yielded superior results in terms of IOP control and success rates in children with primary congenital glaucoma. The need for reoperation for glaucoma was significantly lower in the microcatheter group.

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