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D, S., A. R, A. S, Fathy W, Eldemery A, and E. A, "Braf, Kras and Helicobacter pylori epigenetic changes-associated chronic gastritis in Egyptian patients with and without gastric cancer.", World journal of microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 32, issue 6, pp. 92, 2016.
Darweesh, S. K., R. A. Abd Alziz, H. Omar, D. Sabry, and W. Fathy, "Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine gene variants: Impact on susceptibility and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.", Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 2018 Nov 13, 2019. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a glycoprotein involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, which regulates cell growth. It could be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis related to chronic inflammations, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis, and tumor progression. We aimed to study the expressions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SPARC gene and their impact on susceptibility and survival of HCC patients.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study on 200 HCC patients and 50 matched healthy controls. All patients were subjected to laboratory investigations, ultrasound, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the genetic polymorphisms (rs3210714, rs11950384, and rs7719521) in the SPARC gene in the blood.

RESULTS: One hundred sixty (80%) patients were men with a mean age of 43 years. The SPARC gene showed a significant higher prevalence of rs3210714 mutation (i.e. AA or AG) and a significant lower prevalence of rs11950384 mutation (i.e. AA or AC) among HCC patients in comparison with controls (83% vs 22%, P ≤ 0.001) and (65.5 vs 86%, P = 0.005), respectively, while rs7719521 mutation did not reach significance. On univariate and multivariate analyses, elder age and having at least one copy of the mutant rs3210714 were associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC (P < 0.001 for both), whereas the presence of at least one copy of the mutant rs11950384 carried a significantly reduced risk of having HCC (P < 0.01). Overall survival did not differ significantly between any of the SPARC gene mutation groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The SPARC gene polymorphisms had a diverse impact on the susceptibility of HCC due to its ability to inhibit or promote tumor progression. SPARC gene polymorphisms were not related to survival of our HCC patients, and probably, this needs further analysis of other SPARC gene nucleotides.