Improved Mineral Acquisition, Sugars Metabolism and Redox Status after Mycorrhizal Inoculation Are the Basis for Tolerance to Vanadium Stress in C3 and C4 Grasses

Citation:
Selim, Samy, Walid Abuelsoud, Salam S. Alsharari, Bassam F. Alowaiesh, Mohammad M. Al-Sanea, Soad Al Jaouni, Mahmoud M. Y. Madany, and Hamada AbdElgawad. "Improved Mineral Acquisition, Sugars Metabolism and Redox Status after Mycorrhizal Inoculation Are the Basis for Tolerance to Vanadium Stress in C3 and C4 Grasses." Journal of Fungi 7 (2021).

Abstract:

Vanadium (V) can be beneficial or toxic to plant growth and the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and V stress was rarely investigated at physiological and biochemical levels of plant groups (C3 and C4) and organs (roots and shoots). We tested the potential of AMF to alleviate the negative effects of V (350 mg V/Kg soil) on shoots and roots of rye and sorghum. Relative to sorghum (C4), rye (C3) showed higher levels of V and lower levels of key elements under V stress conditions. V inhibited growth, photosynthesis, and induced photorespiration (increased HDR & GO activities) and oxidative damage in both plants. AMF colonization reduced V stress by differently mitigating the oxidative stress in rye and sorghum. This mitigation was accompanied with increases in acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in plant roots and increased organic acids and polyphenols exudation into the soil, thus reduced V accumulation (29% and 58% in rye and sorghum shoot, respectively) and improved absorption of mineral nutrients including Ca, Mg and P. AMF colonization improved photosynthesis and increased the sugar accumulation and metabolism. Sugars also acted as a supplier of C skeletons for producing of antioxidants metabolite such as ascorbate. At the antioxidant level, rye was more responsive to the mitigating impact of AMF. Higher antioxidants and detoxification defence system (MTC, GST, phenolics, tocopherols and activities of CAT, SOD and POX) was recorded for rye, while sorghum (C4) improved its GR activity. The C3/C4-specificity was supported by principal component analysis. Together, this study provided both fundamental and applied insights into practical strategies to mitigate the phytotoxicity hazards of V in C3 and C4 grasses. Moreover, our results emphasize the importance of AMF as an environment-friendly factor to alleviate stress effects on plants and to improve growth and yield of unstressed plants.

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