Phosphodiesterase (1, 3 & 5) inhibitors attenuate diclofenac-induced acute kidney toxicity in rats.

Wadie, W., N. S. Abdel-Razek, and H. A. Salem, "Phosphodiesterase (1, 3 & 5) inhibitors attenuate diclofenac-induced acute kidney toxicity in rats.", Life sciences, vol. 277, pp. 119506, 2021.


Diclofenac, one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, leads to severe adverse effects on the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential pretreatment effect of phosphodiesterase (1, 3 & 5) inhibitors on diclofenac-induced acute renal failure in rats. Rats orally received pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg), vinpocetine (20 mg/kg), cilostazol (50 mg/kg), or sildenafil (5 mg/kg) once per day for 6 consecutive days. Diclofenac (15 mg/kg) was injected on day-4, -5 and -6 in all groups except normal control group. The used phosphodiesterase inhibitors significantly reduced the diclofenac-induced elevation in the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and cystatin C. Moreover, the renal tissue contents of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the protein expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and high mobility group box (HMGB) 1 were markedly reduced by the used phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as compared to the diclofenac control. This was reflected on the marked improvement in histopathological changes induced by diclofenac. Sildenafil showed the best protection regarding TNF-α and NF-κB, while cilostazol showed the best results regarding TLR4, HMGB1 and histopathological examination. This study revealed the good protective effect of these phosphodiesterase inhibitors against diclofenac-induced acute renal failure.