Evaluation of tamoxifen and simvastatin as the combination therapy for the treatment of hormonal dependent breast cancer cells.

Citation:
Ibrahim, A. B., H. F. Zaki, W. W. Ibrahim, M. M. Omran, and S. A. Shouman, "Evaluation of tamoxifen and simvastatin as the combination therapy for the treatment of hormonal dependent breast cancer cells.", Toxicology reports, vol. 6, pp. 1114-1126, 2019.

Abstract:

Tamoxifen (TAM) is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen drug, used in the prevention and treatment of all stages of hormone-responsive breast cancer. Simvastatin (SIM), a lipid-lowering agent, has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth. The study aimed at investigating the impact of using SIM with TAM in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line, T47D, as well as in mice-bearing Ehrlich solid tumor. The cell line was treated with different concentrations of TAM or/and SIM for 72 h. The effects of treatment on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis were investigated. Our results showed that the combination treatment decreased the oxidative stress markers, glucose uptake, VEGF, and MMP 2 &9 in the cell line compared to TAM- treated cells. Drug interaction of TAM and SIM was synergistic in T47D by increasing the apoptotic makers Bax/BCL-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. Additionally, , the combination regimen resulted in a non-significant decrease in the tumor volume compared to TAM treated group. Moreover, the combined treatment decreased the protein expression of TNF-α, NF-kB compared to control. In conclusion, our results suggest that SIM may serve as a promising treatment with TAM for improving the efficacy against estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer.