El-Abhar, H., M. A. E. A. Fattah, W. Wadie, and D. M. El-Tanbouly, "Cilostazol disrupts TLR-4, Akt/GSK-3β/CREB, and IL-6/JAK-2/STAT-3/SOCS-3 crosstalk in a rat model of Huntington's disease.", PLoS One, vol. 13, issue 9, pp. 1-16, 2018.
Soliman, S. M., W. Wadie, S. A. Shouman, and A. A. Ainshoka, "Sodium selenite ameliorates both intestinal and extra-intestinal changes in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats", Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 391, issue 6, pp. 639-647, 2018.
Wazea, S. A., W. Wadie, A. K. Bahgat, and H. S. El-Abhar, "Galantamine anti-colitic effect: Role of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in modulating Jak/STAT3, NF-κB/HMGB1/RAGE and p-AKT/ Bcl-2 pathways", Scientific Reports , vol. 8, issue 5110, pp. 1-10, 2018.
Wadie, W., H. Abdel-Aziz, H. F. Zaki, O. Kelber, D. Weiser, and M. T. Khayyal, "STW 5 is effective in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.", International journal of colorectal disease, vol. 27, issue 11, pp. 1445-53, 2012 Nov. Abstract

PURPOSE: An herbal preparation, STW 5, used clinically in functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, has been shown to possess properties that may render it useful in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present work was conducted to study its effectiveness in a rat model of IBD.

METHODS: An experimental model reflecting ulcerative colitis in man was adopted, whereby colitis was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them 5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for one week. STW 5 and sulfasalazine (as a reference standard) were administered orally daily for 1 week before colitis induction and continued during DSS feeding. The animals were then sacrificed, and the severity of colitis was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Colon samples were homogenized for determination of reduced glutathione, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-3 as well as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, colon segments were suspended in an organ bath to test their reactivity towards carbachol, KCl, and trypsin.

RESULTS: STW 5 and sulfasalazine were both effective in preventing the shortening of colon length and the increase in both colon mass index and total histology score as well as the changes in biochemical parameters measured except changes in dismutase activity. DSS-induced colitis led to marked depression in colonic responsiveness to the agents tested ex vivo, an effect which was normalized by both drugs.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings point to a potential usefulness of STW 5 in the clinical setting of ulcerative colitis.

Abdel-Aziz, H., W. Wadie, D. M. Abdallah, G. Lentzen, and M. T. Khayyal, "Novel effects of ectoine, a bacteria-derived natural tetrahydropyrimidine, in experimental colitis.", Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, vol. 20, issue 7, pp. 585-91, 2013 May 15. Abstract

Evidence suggests an important role of intestinal barrier dysfunction in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore stabilizing mucosal barrier function constitutes a new therapeutic approach in its management. Ectoine is a compatible solute produced by aerobic chemoheterotrophic and halophilic/halotolerant bacteria, where it acts as osmoprotectant and effective biomembrane stabilizer, protecting the producing cells from extreme environmental stress. Since this natural compound was also shown to prevent inflammatory responses associated with IBD, its potential usefulness was studied in a model of colitis. Groups of rats were treated orally with different doses of ectoine (30-300 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (reference drug) daily for 11 days. On day 8 colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, when overt signs of lesions develop within the next 3 days. On day 12, blood was withdrawn from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats and the animals were sacrificed. The colon was excised and examined macroscopically and microscopically. Relevant parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured in serum and colon homogenates. Induction of colitis led to marked weight loss, significant histopathological changes of the colon, and variable changes in levels of myeloperoxidase, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and all inflammatory markers tested. Treatment with ectoine ameliorated the inflammatory changes in TNBS-induced colitis. This effect was associated with reduction in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, PGE2 and LTB4. The findings suggest that intestinal barrier stabilizers from natural sources could offer new therapeutic measures for the management of IBD.

Abdel-Aziz, H., W. Wadie, H. F. Zaki, J. Müller, O. Kelber, T. Efferth, and M. T. Khayyal, "Novel sequential stress model for functional dyspepsia: Efficacy of the herbal preparation STW5.", Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, vol. 22, issue 5, pp. 588-95, 2015 May 15. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many screening procedures for agents with potential usefulness in functional dyspepsia (FD) rely on animals exposed to stress early in life (neonatal maternal separation, NMS) or in adulthood (restraint stress, RS).

PURPOSE: Since many clinical cases of FD have been associated with stress in early life followed by stress in adulthood, a sequential model simulating the clinical situation is described. To explore the validity of the model, the efficacy of STW5, a multicomponent herbal preparation of proven usefulness in FD, was tested.

STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: A sequential stress model established where rats are exposed to NMS after birth followed later by RS in adulthood. Stress hormones and ghrelin were measured in plasma, while responsiveness of stomach fundus strips to smooth muscle stimulants and relaxants was assessed ex-vivo. The effectiveness of treatment with STW5 a few days before and during exposure to RS in preventing changes induced by the stress model is reported and compared to its efficacy when used in animals subjected to RS alone.

RESULTS: Responses to both stimulants and relaxants were reduced to various extents in the studied models, but treatment with STW5 tended to normalize gastric responsiveness. Plasma levels of ghrelin, corticosterone releasing factor, and corticosterone were raised by RS as well as the sequential model. Treatment with STW5 tended to prevent the deranged parameters.

CONCLUSION: The sequential stress model has a place in drug screening for potential usefulness in FD as it simulates more the clinical setting. Furthermore, the findings shed more light on the mechanisms of action of STW5 in FD.

Abdel-Aziz, H., W. Wadie, O. Scherner, T. Efferth, and M. T. Khayyal, "Bacteria-Derived Compatible Solutes Ectoine and 5α-Hydroxyectoine Act as Intestinal Barrier Stabilizers to Ameliorate Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease.", Journal of natural products, vol. 78, issue 6, pp. 1309-15, 2015 Jun 26. Abstract

Earlier studies showed that the compatible solute ectoine (1) given prophylactically before induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats prevented histological changes induced in the colon and the associated rise in inflammatory mediators. This study was therefore conducted to investigate whether ectoine (1) and its 5α-hydroxy derivative (2) would also be effective in treating an already established condition. Two days after inducing colitis in rats by instilling TNBS/alcohol in the colon, animals were treated orally once daily for 1 week with either 1 or 2 (50, 100, 300 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the last drug administration rats were sacrificed. Ulcerative lesions and colon mass indices were reduced by 1 and 2 in a bell-shaped manner. Best results were obtained with 100 mg/kg ectoine (1) and 50 mg/kg 5α-hydroxyectoine (2). The solutes normalized the rise in myeloperoxidase, TNFα, and IL-1β induced by TNBS but did not affect levels of reduced glutathione or ICAM-1, while reducing the level of fecal calprotectin, an established marker for inflammatory bowel disease. The findings indicate that the naturally occurring compatible solutes ectoine (1) and 5α-hydroxyectoine (2) possess an optimum concentration that affords maximal intestinal barrier stabilization and could therefore prove useful for better management of human inflammatory bowel disease.

Salem, H. A., and W. Wadie, "Effect of Niacin on Inflammation and Angiogenesis in a Murine Model of Ulcerative Colitis.", Scientific reports, vol. 7, issue 1, pp. 7139, 2017 Aug 02. Abstract

Butyrate and niacin are produced by gut microbiota, however butyrate has received most attention for its effects on colonic health. The present study aimed at exploring the effect of niacin on experimental colitis as well as throwing some light on the ability of niacin to modulate angiogenesis which plays a crucial role of in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Rats were given niacin for 2 weeks. On day 8, colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of iodoacetamide. Rats were sacrificed on day 15 and colonic damage was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiostatin and endostatin levels were determined. Niacin attenuated the severity of colitis as demonstrated by a decrease in weight loss, colonic wet weight and MPO activity. Iodoacetamide-induced rise in the colonic levels of TNF-α, VEGF, angiostatin and endostatin was reversed by niacin. Moreover, niacin normalized IL-10 level in colon. Mepenzolate bromide, a GPR109A receptor blocker, abolished the beneficial effects of niacin on body weight, colon wet weight as well as colonic levels of MPO and VEGF. Therefore, niacin was effective against iodoacetamide-induced colitis through ameliorating pathologic angiogenesis and inflammatory changes in a GPR109A-dependent manner.

Wadie, W., and D. M. El-Tanbouly, "Vinpocetine mitigates proteinuria and podocytes injury in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 814, pp. 187-195, 2017 Nov 05. Abstract

Podocyte injury and glomerular basement membrane thickening have been considered as essential pathophysiological events in diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of vinpocetine on diabetes-associated renal damage. Male Wistar rats were made diabetic by injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were treated with vinpocetine in a dose of 20mg/kg/day for 6 weeks. Treatment with vinpocetine resulted in a marked decrease in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urinary albumin and albumin/creatinine ratio along with an elevation in creatinine clearance rate. The renal contents of advanced glycation end-products, interleukin-10, tissue growth factor-β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac 1) were decreased. Renal nephrin and podocin contents were increased and their mRNA expressions were replenished in vinpocetine-treated rats. Moreover, administration of vinpocetine showed improvements in oxidative status as well as renal glomerular and tubular structures. The current investigation revealed that vinpocetine ameliorated the STZ-induced renal damage. This beneficial effect could be attributed to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects parallel to its ability to inhibit NF-κB which eventually modulated cytokines production as well as nephrin and podocin proteins expression.