Malkawi, H. I., and T. Y. S. Kapiel, "Microbial Biotechnology: A Key Tool for Addressing Climate Change and Food Insecurity", European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 1-15, 2024/03/12. AbstractWebsite

<p>Amidst escalating climate change and food insecurity concerns, exploring the potential of microbes offers a promising and sustainable solution. This review delves into the complex interplay between microbial communities and the dual challenge of environmental crisis and food security.</p><p>Ubiquitous microorganisms – from bacteria to fungi and archaea – shape our planet's ecosystems, playing a crucial role in soil health, nutrient cycling, and plant-microbe interactions. This review dissects diverse microbial habitats, highlighting their remarkable adaptability to varied environments.</p><p>It then underscores the reciprocal impacts of human-induced environmental changes on microbes and their habitats. Addressing these challenges, the review presents microbes as powerful allies in mitigating climate change. Their ability to sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and enhance soil fertility is explored. Innovations like biofertilizers and biopesticides demonstrate the potential of microbial technologies to revolutionize agriculture and ensure global food security.</p><p>Concluding, the review emphasizes the symbiotic link between microbes and sustainable food production. Microbial technologies can adapt agriculture to changing climate conditions, addressing water scarcity and enhancing soil moisture retention. Their potential to boost productivity in both traditional and precision agriculture under diverse climatic conditions is highlighted.</p><p>This review calls for the urgent recognition and harnessing of microbial power for a sustainable future. Embracing microbial technologies not only fosters environmental stewardship but also paves the way for a resilient and resource-efficient agricultural future.</p>

Kapiel, T. Y. S., M. R. Rezk, L. Piccinetti, N. Salem, A. Khasawneh, D. Santoro, F. M. Montagnino, A. A. El-Bary, and M. M. Sakr, Circular economy in Egypt: an overview of the current landscape and potential for growth, , 2023. Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the circular economy in Egypt. With the country facing significant environmental challenges, a circular economy approach can offer sustainable solutions to Egypt's environmental challenges by addressing issues like limited resources, waste generation, and a growing population in an eco-friendly and long-term perspective. This research employs a mixed-methods approach, including a literature review, surveys, and consultations with key stakeholders. The analysis reveals that although there are numerous challenges to establishing a circular economy in Egypt, such as limited understanding, insufficient government backing, and inadequate infrastructure, there are also opportunities, such as increasing demand for eco-friendly goods and services, as well as a receptive business environment. The paper recommends various policy and practical interventions to overcome these barriers and capitalize on these opportunities, including increasing awareness and understanding of the circular economy, developing supportive programs and regulations, investing in infrastructure and technology, and fostering stakeholder collaboration. This paper provides valuable insights into the potential for a circular economy in Egypt and the steps that can be taken to create a more sustainable future for the country. As such, it will interest policymakers, researchers, and practitioners working in the sustainability and environmental management field. The successful implementation of a circular economy in Egypt will require collective efforts from stakeholders to promote long-term sustainability and environmental stewardship.

Nanobiotechnology: An Introduction

Nanobiotechnology: An Introduction
Fouad, A., A. E. HEGAZY, E. Azab, E. Khojah, and T. Kapiel, "Boosting of Antioxidants and Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus Suspension Cultures Using Silver Nanoparticles with Expression of CrMPK3 and STR Genes", Plants, vol. 10, no. 10, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Global agricultural systems are under unprecedented pressures due to climate change. Advanced nano-engineering can help increase crop yields while ensuring sustainability. Nanotechnology improves agricultural productivity by boosting input efficiency and reducing waste. Alkaloids as one of the numerous secondary metabolites that serve variety of cellular functions essential for physiological processes. This study tests the competence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in boosting alkaloids accumulation in Catharanthus roseus suspension cultures in relation to the expression of C. roseus Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 3 (CrMPK3) and Strictosidine Synthase (STR) genes. Five concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg·L−1) of AgNPs were utilized in addition to deionized water as control. Results reflected binary positive correlations among AgNPs concentration, oxidative stress indicated with increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents, activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, expression of the regulatory gene CrMPK3 and the alkaloid biosynthetic gene STR as well as alkaloids accumulation. These correlations add to the growing evidence that AgNPs can trigger the accumulation of alkaloids in plant cells through a signaling pathway that involves hydrogen peroxide and MAPKs, leading to up-regulation of the biosynthetic genes, including STR gene.

Emam, M. A., A. M. Abd EL-Mageed, G. Niedbała, S. A. Sabrey, A. S. Fouad, T. Kapiel, M. Piekutowska, and S. A. Mahmoud, "Genetic Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Ten Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars", Agronomy, vol. 12, no. 5, 2022. AbstractWebsite

This investigation was carried out for genetic characterization and determination of drought tolerance of ten Egyptian cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely Misr 1, Misr 2, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Gemmiza 11, Gemmiza 12, Shandawel 1, Giza 168, Giza 171, and Sids 14. These cultivars were grown in two winter seasons: 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 at the experimental farm Fac. of Agric., Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia, Egypt, under two watering regimes: normal (100%) and stress (50% FC) conditions. Six agronomic traits and five tolerance indices, namely stress tolerance (TOL), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), yield stability index (YSI), and drought susceptibility index (DSI), were used to evaluate the impact of drought stress. The results reflected Giza 171, Misr 2, and Giza 168 as precious germplasm for breeding of high-yielding drought-tolerant wheat. A highly significant positive correlation was recorded between yield under normal and stress conditions on the one hand and each of MP and GMP on the other hand. In addition, YSI appeared engaged in a highly significant positive correlation with yield under drought conditions only. TOL and DSI appeared insignificantly correlated with yield. Therefore, MP and GMP were reflected as the first runners among indices suitable to distinguish the high-yielding cultivars under drought conditions. At the molecular level, five primers of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers were able to resolve and characterize the studied cultivars, which reflected SCoT as a potent gene-targeting molecular marker, able to characterize and resolve genetic diversity in wheat at the cultivar level using few primers. Therefore, SCoT is a time-efficient molecular marker, and it can efficiently replace indices in characterization of drought-tolerant genotypes with a high confidence level and reasonable cost.

Ead, H., and T. Kabiel, Mohamed Abdel Fattah Al-Kassas: The Founding Father of Egypt’s Ecology, , vol. 61, issue 3, pp. 673 - 680, 2021. AbstractWebsite

“PROF. KASSAS is the very embodiment of all that is good in a human being. His life is his message. He has stood for achieving harmony between humankind and nature as well as peace and harmony among nations.” M. S. Swaminathan*Professor Mohamed Abdel Fattah Al-Kassas (July 6, 1921 - March 21, 2012) was one of the most extraordinary scientific luminaries in Egypt, he is among the pioneers who have warned the world against the hazards of desertification and has played an important role in designing and implementing a number of UNESCO programs such as Man and the Biosphere.He was professor emeritus for the Botany University of Cairo, Egyptian botanist and conservationist, a specialist in the ecology of desert plants, his environmental and botanical work over many decades cut a broad and fertile swath in areas of desert ecology and environmental changes over time, especially in relation to desertification – a process he is held to have brought to both public and scientific attention and was among the first to publish on the topic of desertification. He studied at the University of Cairo, where he received a B.Sc. in 1944 and an M.Sc. in 1947, and at the University of Cambridge (Ph.D. in 1950). He was a member of the Egyptian Academy of Science and the Institute of Egypt. Prof. Kassas was an advisory member of the United Nations Environment Programme from its beginning, He was also the notable President (1978-1984) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Science, the World Academy of Art and Science, and an honorary member of the Club of Rome.

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