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Ismail, T. H., "Intellectual capital reporting in knowledge economy of Egypt", International Journal of Critical Accounting, vol. 3, issue 2/3, pp. 293-317, 2011. Abstract

This study examines voluntary intellectual capital reporting (ICR) in annual reports of the top 30 companies listed in Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchange (CASE) as well as eliciting the barriers that could hamper the development and implementation of ICR in an Egyptian setting. The study contributes to the body of research done in this area, as most of research has been conducted in developed countries. There is a lack of empirical research at organisational level in the field of intellectual capital in Egypt, which is, socially, economically and culturally different from developed countries. The results indicate that levels of voluntary disclosure of IC items are relatively low while disclosures are dominated by customer relations items. Additionally, reporting of IC is in qualitative rather than quantitative style. The most important barriers that might impact the development and implementation of IC are cost and time associated with developing IC indicators.

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