Motawi, T. K., N. A. H. Sadik, M. A. Hamed, S. A. Ali, W. K. B. Khalil, and Y. R. Ahmed, "Potential therapeutic effects of antagonizing adenosine A receptor, curcumin and niacin in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice model.", Molecular and cellular biochemistry, vol. 465, issue 1-2, pp. 89-102, 2020. Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second common age-related neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by control loss of voluntary movements control, resting tremor, postural instability, bradykinesia, and rigidity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate curcumin, niacin, dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic drugs in mice model of Parkinson's disease through behavioral, biochemical, genetic and histopathological observations. Mice treated with rotenone rerecorded significant increase in adenosine A receptor (AR) gene expression, α synuclein, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), malondialdehyde (MDA), angiotensin-II (Ang-II), c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), caspase-3 (Cas-3) and DNA fragmentation levels as compared with the control group. While, significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), ATP, succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH &LDH) levels were detected. Treatment with curcumin, niacin, adenosine AR antagonist; ZM241385 and their combination enhanced the animals' behavior and restored all the selected parameters with variable degrees of improvement. The brain histopathological features of hippocampal and substantia nigra regions confirmed our results. In conclusion, the combination of curcumin, niacin and ZM241385 recorded the most potent treatment effect in Parkinsonism mice followed by ZM241385, as a single treatment. ZM241385 succeeded to antagonize adenosine A receptor by diminishing its gene expression and ameliorating all biochemical parameters under investigation. The newly investigated agent; ZM241385 has almost the same pattern of improvement as the classical drug; Sinemet®. This could shed the light to the need of detailed studies on ZM241385 for its possible role as a promising treatment against PD. Additionally, food supplements such as curcumin and niacin were effective in Parkinson's disease eradication.

Motawi, T. M. K., N. I. Zakhary, H. A. Darwish, H. Abdullah, and S. A. Tadros, "Significance of Some Non-Invasive Biomarkers in the Early Diagnosis and Staging of Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients.", Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol. 21, issue 11, pp. 3279-3284, 2020. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is one of the most relevant malignancies among women. Early diagnosis and accurate staging of breast cancer is important for the selection of an appropriate therapeutic strategy and achieving a better outcome.

AIM: This study aimed to explore the significance of some non-invasive biomarkers in the early diagnosis and staging of Egyptian breast cancer patients.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 135 female patients with physically and pathologically confirmed breast cancer and 40 unrelated controls as well as 40 patients with benign breast mass were enrolled in this study. The malignant breast cancer group was further divided into four groups according to tumor size. Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1), resistin and visfatin were determined by enzyme immunoassay.

RESULTS: Elevated levels of CEACAM1, resistin and visfatin were observed in breast cancer patients when compared with normal control and benign groups. The cutoff values, sensitivities and specificities of these biomarkers were appropriate for the discrimination of breast cancer from controls. Additionally, the serum levels of visfatin increased positively with tumor size and consequently with breast cancer stages.

CONCLUSION: CEACAM1, resistin and visfatin are valuable in early diagnosis of breast cancer, with visfatin being preferentially used in staging.

Motawi, T. K., N. N. Shahin, K. Awad, A. S. Maghraby, D. N. Abd-Elshafy, and M. M. Bahgat, "Glycolytic and immunological alterations in human U937 monocytes in response to H1N1 infection.", IUBMB life, vol. 72, issue 11, pp. 2481-2498, 2020. Abstract

We monitored changes that took place in glycolytic enzymes, the pyruvate end product of glycolysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and toll-like receptors (TLRs) both at the transcriptional and translational levels upon direct interaction between PR8-H1N1 and the human monocytes U937 in vitro system. U937 were first treated with H1N1 infectious viral particles or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or left untreated and later infected with the H1N1 virus. Levels of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) and pyruvate were biochemically quantified. In addition, levels of TNFα, TLR3, and TLR7 were measured by ELISA. The transcriptional profiles of PFKs, inflammatory cytokines, TLR3 and TLR7 were relatively quantified by qRT-PCR. The results generally revealed significant changes in both the transcriptional and translational profiles of the studied biochemical and immunological parameters upon influenza infection in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, H1N1 infection triggers transcriptional and translational changes in immortalized human monocytes, which might serve as markers for infection subject for further validation for their specificities.

Motawi, T. M. K., Z. M. Abdel-Nasser, and N. N. Shahin, "Ameliorative Effect of Necrosulfonamide in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Targeting Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-like Protein-Mediated Necroptosis.", ACS chemical neuroscience, vol. 11, issue 20, pp. 3386-3397, 2020. Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that has no effective remedy, so far, with available therapeutic modalities being only symptomatic and of modest efficacy. Necroptosis is a form of controlled cell death with a recently emerging link to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of AD and evaluated the potential beneficial effect of the necroptosis inhibitor, necrosulfonamide (NSA), in a rat model of AD. AD was induced by oral administration of AlCl (17 mg/kg/day) for 6 consecutive weeks. Administration of NSA (1.65 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks significantly amended AlCl-induced spatial learning and memory deficits, as demonstrated by enhanced rat performance in Morris water and Y-mazes. NSA alleviated the abnormally high hippocampal expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), β-amyloid, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phosphorylated tau protein, and acetylcholinesterase with concordant replenishment of acetylcholine. The amendments of AD perturbations achieved by NSA correlated with its inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of the key necroptotic executioner, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Histopathological alterations supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, NSA treatment represents a promising anti-Alzheimer's approach, mitigating AD neuropathologies via targeting MLKL-dependent necroptosis.

Motawi, T. K., N. N. Shahin, A. S. Maghraby, M. Kirschfink, D. N. Abd-Elshafy, K. Awad, and M. M. Bahgat, "H1N1 Infection Reduces Glucose Level in Human U937 Monocytes Culture.", Viral immunology, vol. 33, issue 5, pp. 384-390, 2020. Abstract

Infection with influenza A (H1N1) virus contributes significantly to the global burden of acute respiratory diseases. Glucose uptake and metabolic changes are reported in different cell types after infections with different virus types, including influenza A virus. Alteration of glucose metabolism specifically in immune cells has major health consequences. The aim of this study was to monitor glucose concentration in unstimulated and stimulated U937 human monocytes with infectious or heat inactivated H1N1 or or in nonpathogenically stimulated monocytes with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. Stimulated or unstimulated U937 human monocytes were subjected to H1N1 infection for different time points and the glucose profile in the growth medium was measured post infection. Results showed that regardless to whether the initial stimuli on U937 cells were of pathogen or nonpathogen origins, challenge infection by H1N1 causes a significant reduction of glucose levels 36 h post infection. In conclusion, H1N1 infection has a direct effect on the glucose uptake of U937 cells . This effect can be related to either H1N1 infection or cell differentiation status that might occur due to the exerted stimuli.

Motawi, T. K., S. A. Ahmed, M. A. Hamed, S. A. EL-Maraghy, and W. M. Aziz, "Melatonin and/or rowatinex attenuate streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal injury in rats.", Journal of biomedical research, vol. 33, issue 2, pp. 113-121, 2019. Abstract

The study aimed to explore the prophylactic effect of melatonin, rowatinex; a naturally occurring renal drug, and its combination on diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/g body weight). Three days before diabetes induction, rats were daily treated with melatonin, rowatinex and their combination continuously for 8 weeks. Evaluation was done through measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum uric acid, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, creatinine clearance, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), caspase-3, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), DNA degradation by the comet assay and total protein contents. Histopathologic study was also done for the kidney and the pancreas. Drastic changes in all measured parameters of the diabetic rats were observed. Treatment with melatonin and rowatinex showed amelioration to variable degrees. In conclusion, melatonin showed the most potent effect on protecting rats from deleterious action of diabetic nephropathy followed by its combination with rowatinex.

Motawi, T. K., N. A. H. Sadik, M. A. Hamed, S. A. Ali, W. K. B. Khalil, and Y. R. Ahmed, "Potential therapeutic effects of antagonizing adenosine A receptor, curcumin and niacin in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice model.", Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2019. Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second common age-related neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by control loss of voluntary movements control, resting tremor, postural instability, bradykinesia, and rigidity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate curcumin, niacin, dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic drugs in mice model of Parkinson's disease through behavioral, biochemical, genetic and histopathological observations. Mice treated with rotenone rerecorded significant increase in adenosine A receptor (AR) gene expression, α synuclein, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), malondialdehyde (MDA), angiotensin-II (Ang-II), c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), caspase-3 (Cas-3) and DNA fragmentation levels as compared with the control group. While, significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), ATP, succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH &LDH) levels were detected. Treatment with curcumin, niacin, adenosine AR antagonist; ZM241385 and their combination enhanced the animals' behavior and restored all the selected parameters with variable degrees of improvement. The brain histopathological features of hippocampal and substantia nigra regions confirmed our results. In conclusion, the combination of curcumin, niacin and ZM241385 recorded the most potent treatment effect in Parkinsonism mice followed by ZM241385, as a single treatment. ZM241385 succeeded to antagonize adenosine A receptor by diminishing its gene expression and ameliorating all biochemical parameters under investigation. The newly investigated agent; ZM241385 has almost the same pattern of improvement as the classical drug; Sinemet®. This could shed the light to the need of detailed studies on ZM241385 for its possible role as a promising treatment against PD. Additionally, food supplements such as curcumin and niacin were effective in Parkinson's disease eradication.

Motawi, T. K., S. A. Ahmed, N. A. El-Boghdady, N. S. Metwally, and N. N. Nasr, "Impact of betanin against paracetamol and diclofenac induced hepato-renal damage in rats.", Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 86-93, 2020. Abstract

Paracetamol (PAR) and diclofenac (DF) are the most popular consumed analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of betanin (Bet) against PAR or DF induced hepato-renal damage in rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: Normal control (NC) group rats were given saline only. PAR group rats received PAR (400 mg/kg). PAR/Bet treated group rats administered PAR (400 mg/kg) plus Bet (25 mg/kg). DF group rats received DF (10 mg/kg). DF/Bet treated group rats administered DF (10 mg/kg) plus Bet (25 mg/kg). All drugs were given by gavage for 28 consecutive days. PAR and DF administration in high dose and long-time induced liver and kidney injury, disrupted serum lipid profile, enhanced serum levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, triggered DNA fragmentation and caused drastic changes in the histopathological pictures of the two organs. Bet supplementation succeeded to ameliorate most of the biochemical changes and protected DNA from damage as obtained from comet assay. Histological features in H&E taken to different groups also mirrors this findings. Bet exerted a potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect against hepato-renal damage induced by PAR or DF overconsumption.

Motawi, T. K., S. A. Ahmed, N. A. El-Boghdady, N. S. Metwally, and N. N. Nasr, "Protective effects of betanin against paracetamol and diclofenac induced neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in rats.", Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals, pp. 1-22, 2019. Abstract

Overconsumption of Paracetamol (PAR) and diclofenac (DF) have been reported to induce neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. The current study was designed to explore the protective potential of betanin against paracetamol and diclofenac inducing neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in a rat model. 40 rats were equally divided into five groups: group I served as control, group II received PAR (400 mg/kg), group III received PAR plus betanin (25mg/kg), group IV received DF (10mg/kg) and group V received DF plus betanin orally for 28 consecutive days. Thyroid axis hormones, sex hormone, neurotransmitters, paraoxonase-1, hemoxygenase-1 and nuclear factor-2 were measured by ELISA. While, the oxidative stress markers were calorimetrically estimated. Moreover, DNA damage and histopathological picture of the brains were investigated. A marked reduction in thyroid axis hormones, brain neurotransmitters and serum testosterone as well as enhanced oxidative stress and brain DNA damage accompanied by drastic changes in the brain histopathological picture were recorded in the challenged PAR and DF groups. Betanin supplementation ameliorated most of the biochemical and histopathological changes induced by PAR or DF. : The study suggests betanin of potential protective effects against neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption induced by PAR and DF overconsumption.

Motawi, T. K., A. E. Mady, S. Shaheen, S. Z. Elshenawy, R. M. Talaat, and S. M. Rizk, "Genetic variation in microRNA-100 (miR-100) rs1834306 T/C associated with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: Correlation with expression level.", Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, vol. 73, pp. 444-449, 2019. Abstract

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have a vital role in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) diagnosis and therapeutics. miR-100 was reported to be associated with various aspects of HBV biology. This study focused on a miR-100 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) (rs1834306 T/C) and its contribution to an individual's susceptibility and prognosis of HBV infection. The effect of SNP on miR-100 expression will be also evaluated. Two hundred subjects: 100 HBV infected patients and 100 age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as a control group. SNP detection was performed using polymerase chain reaction technique with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method and miR-100 expression through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our result showed a significant up-regulation of miR-100 expression in HBV patients versus the control group (P < .01). A positive correlation was found between viral load and elevation in miR-100 expression (r = 0.508; P < .01). Concerning miR-100 expression in different genotypes/alleles, TC genotype and T allele in coincides with a significantly elevated expression level of miR-100 (P < .001) in HBV patients than in controls. Best of our knowledge, it is the first observational prospective case-control study concerned with miR-100 (rs1834306 T/C) SNP in the Egyptian population. However, the small size of this preliminary work required more prospective investigations to confirm our data.

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