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Osteoblast lineage-specific cell-surface antigen (A7) regulates osteoclast recruitment and calcification during bone remodeling., Badawy, Tamer, Kyumoto-Nakamura Yukari, Uehara Norihisa, Zhang Jingqi, Sonoda Soichiro, Hiura Hidenobu, Yamaza Takayoshi, Kukita Akiko, and Kukita Toshio , Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 2019 Feb 11, (2019) Abstract

Bone remodeling is a continuous process characterized by highly coordinated cell-cell interactions in distinct multi-cellular units. Osteoclasts, which are specialized bone resorbing cells, play a central role in bone remodeling. Although the RANKL/RANK axis determines the gross number of osteoclasts present in bone tissue, detailed molecular events regulating bone remodeling related to osteoclast recruitment, initiation of bone remodeling, and coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are still ambiguous. We hypothesized that osteoblast-specific cell-surface molecules contribute to the molecular modulation of bone remodeling. Therefore, we searched for regulatory cell-surface molecules expressed on osteoblasts by use of B-cell hybridoma technology. We obtained a monoclonal antibody A7 (A7 MAb) highly specific to cells of osteoblast-lineage. Here we describe the expression pattern and possible role of A7 antigen specifically recognized by A7 MAb. In vitro, A7 antigen was expressed on cell-surface of osteoblasts and osteoblast-like bone marrow stromal cells. In vivo, A7 antigen was detected in a subset of bone surface osteoblasts and in osteocytes, with a typical cell membrane expression pattern. Tissue array analysis showed only a limited expression of A7 antigen in osteocytes close to the bone surface. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation analysis showed that A7 antigen is a lineage-specific cell-surface protein with an approximate molecular weight of 45 KDa. Cross-linking of cell-surface A7 antigen in cultures of osteoclastogenesis showed stimulation of osteoclast formation. Marked suppression of calcification in primary osteoblast cultures was observed when A7 antigen was cross-linked with anti-A7 antigen MAb, A7 MAb. These data suggest that A7 antigen regulates recruitment of osteoclasts and triggering of calcification. A7 antigen may be an important molecule involved in the precise regulation of bone remodeling.

IL-1β Induces Pathologically Activated Osteoclasts Bearing Extremely High Levels of Resorbing Activity: A Possible Pathological Subpopulation of Osteoclasts, Accompanied by Suppressed Expression of Kindlin-3 and Talin-1., Shiratori, Takuma, Kyumoto-Nakamura Yukari, Kukita Akiko, Uehara Norihisa, Zhang Jingqi, Koda Kinuko, Kamiya Mako, Badawy Tamer, Tomoda Erika, Xu Xianghe, et al. , Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2018 01 01, Volume 200, Issue 1, p.218-228, (2018) Abstract

As osteoclasts have the central roles in normal bone remodeling, it is ideal to regulate only the osteoclasts performing pathological bone destruction without affecting normal osteoclasts. Based on a hypothesis that pathological osteoclasts form under the pathological microenvironment of the bone tissues, we here set up optimum culture conditions to examine the entity of pathologically activated osteoclasts (PAOCs). Through searching various inflammatory cytokines and their combinations, we found the highest resorbing activity of osteoclasts when osteoclasts were formed in the presence of M-CSF, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, and IL-1β. We have postulated that these osteoclasts are PAOCs. Analysis using confocal laser microscopy revealed that PAOCs showed extremely high proton secretion detected by the acid-sensitive fluorescence probe Rh-PM and bone resorption activity compared with normal osteoclasts. PAOCs showed unique morphology bearing high thickness and high motility with motile cellular processes in comparison with normal osteoclasts. We further examined the expression of Kindlin-3 and Talin-1, essential molecules for activating integrin β-chains. Although normal osteoclasts express high levels of Kindlin-3 and Talin-1, expression of these molecules was markedly suppressed in PAOCs, suggesting the abnormality in the adhesion property. When whole membrane surface of mature osteoclasts was biotinylated and analyzed, the IL-1β-induced cell surface protein was detected. PAOCs could form a subpopulation of osteoclasts possibly different from normal osteoclasts. PAOC-specific molecules could be an ideal target for regulating pathological bone destruction.