Tadalafil and bergapten mitigate streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease in mice via modulating neuroinflammation, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin, AMPK/mTOR signaling pathways.

Citation:
Salem, M. A., B. Budzyńska, J. Kowalczyk, N. S. El Sayed, and S. M. Mansour, "Tadalafil and bergapten mitigate streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease in mice via modulating neuroinflammation, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin, AMPK/mTOR signaling pathways.", Toxicology and applied pharmacology, vol. 429, pp. 115697, 2021.

Abstract:

Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. This study aimed to investigate neuroprotective potential of tadalafil (TAD) and bergapten (BG) in SAD-induced cognitive impairment in mice. SAD was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg, ICV). STZ resulted in AD-like pathologies including Aβ deposition, tau aggregation, impaired insulin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as autophagic dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Administration of TAD or BG at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively, for 21 consecutive days attenuated STZ-induced hippocampal insult, preserved neuronal integrity, and improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze and object recognition tests paralleled by reduction in Aβ expression by 79 and 89% and tau hyperphosphorylation by 60 and 61%, respectively. TAD and BG also enhanced protein expression of pAkt, pGSK-3β, beclin-1 and methylated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and gene expression of cyclin D1, while raised BDNF immunoreactivity. Furthermore, TAD and BG boosted hippocampal levels of cGMP, PKG, Wnt3a, and AMPK and reduced expression of β-catenin and mTOR by 74% and 51%, respectively. TAD and BG also halted neuroinflammation by reducing IL-23 and IL-27 levels, as well as protein expression of NF-κB by 62% & 61%, respectively. In conclusion, this study offers novel insights on the neuroprotective effects of TAD or BG in the management of SAD as evidenced by improved cognitive function and histological architecture. This could be attributed to modulation of the crosstalk among PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β, PP2A, mTOR/autophagy, cGMP/PKG, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascades and mitigation of neuroinflammation.

Tourism