Fluvastatin-Loaded Emulsomes Exhibit Improved Cytotoxic and Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells.

Alhakamy, N. A., S. M. Badr-Eldin, H. M. Aldawsari, A. Alfarsi, T. Neamatallah, S. Z. Okbazghi, U. A. Fahmy, O. A. A. Ahmad, B. G. Eid, W. A. Mahdi, et al., "Fluvastatin-Loaded Emulsomes Exhibit Improved Cytotoxic and Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells.", AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 22, issue 5, pp. 177, 2021.


Fluvastatin (FLV) is known to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), which is over-expressed in various cancers. FLV has been reported to decrease cancer development and metastasis. However, because of low bioavailability, extensive first-pass metabolism and short half-life of FLV (1.2 h), it is not appropriate for clinical application. Therefore, FLV-loaded emulsomes were formulated and optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design to achieve higher efficiency of formulation. Antitumor activity of optimized FLV-loaded emulsomes was evaluated in prostate cancer cells using cell cytotoxicity, apoptotic activity, cell cycle analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The FLV-loaded emulsomes exhibited a monodispersed size distribution with a mean particle size less than 100 nm as measured by zetasizer. The entrapment efficiency was found to be 93.74% with controlled drug release profile. FLV-EMLs showed a significant inhibitory effect on the viability of PC3 cells when compared to the free FLV (P < 0.0025). Furthermore, FLV-EMLs showed significant arrest in G2/M and increase in percentage of apoptotic cells as compared to free FLV. FLV-EMLs were more effective than free FLV in reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in caspase-3 activity. These results suggesting that FLV-EMLs caused cell cycle arrest which clarifies its significant antiproliferative effect compared to the free drug. Therefore, optimized FLV-EMLs may be an effective carrier for FLV in prostate cancer treatment.