El Zalabani, S. M., H. I. El-Askary, O. M. Mousa, M. Y. Issa, A. A. Zaitoun, and E. Abdel-Sattar, "Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.", Experimental parasitology, vol. 130, issue 2, pp. 166-70, 2012 Feb. Abstract

The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite.

Nagia, M. M., M. M. El-Metwally, M. Shaaban, S. M. El-Zalabani, and A. G. Hanna, "Four butyrolactones and diverse bioactive secondary metabolites from terrestrial Aspergillus flavipes MM2: isolation and structure determination.", Organic and medicinal chemistry letters, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 9, 2012 Mar 01. Abstract

The chemical constituents and biological activities of the terrestrial Aspergillus flavipes MM2 isolated from Egyptian rice hulls are reported. Seven bioactive compounds were obtained, of which one sterol: ergosterol (1), four butyrolactones: butyrolactone I (2), aspulvinone H (3), butyrolactone-V (6) and 4,4'-diydroxypulvinone (7), along with 6-methylsalicylic acid (4) and the cyclopentenone analogue; terrien (5). Structures of the isolated compounds were deduced by intensive studies of their 1D & 2D NMR, MS data and comparison with related structures. The strain extract and the isolated compounds (1-7) were biologically studied against number of microbial strains, and brine shrimp for cytotoxicity. In this article, the taxonomical characterization of A. flavipes MM2 along with its upscale fermentation, isolation and structural assignment of the obtained bioactive metabolites, and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were described.

Rasheed, D. M., S. M. El Zalabani, M. A. Koheil, H. M. El-Hefnawy, and M. A. Farag, "Metabolite profiling driven analysis of Salsola species and their anti-acetylcholinesterase potential.", Natural product research, vol. 27, issue 24, pp. 2320-7, 2013. Abstract

Over 100 species of the genus Salsola are distributed in dry, arid parts of Asia, Europe and Africa, of which many species are recognised as antifungal, anticancer, antihypertensive and anthelmintic agents. Egyptian Salsola received scant characterisation of either its phytochemical composition or its biological effects. In this study, the metabolite profiles of two Salsola species viz. S. vermiculata and S. tetrandra were characterised in the aerial portions and root via ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution qTOF-MS and NMR. Identified metabolites belonged to various classes including hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, flavonoids, oxygenated fatty acids and alkaloids. Principal component analysis of derived biochemical profiles was also used for species and/or organs classification. Roots were enriched in hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, whereas flavonoids were more abundant in aerial parts with kaempferol derivatives as major flavonoids in S. tetrandra versus quercetin in S. vermiculata. The root of S. vermiculata exhibited strong anti-acetylcholinesterase activity relative to eserine standard.

Khalil, N., M. Fekry, M. Bishr, SoheirEl-Zalabani, and O. Salama, "Foliar spraying of salicylic acid induced accumulation of phenolics, increased radical scavenging activity and modified the composition of the essential oil of water stressed Thymus vulgaris L.", Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, vol. 123, pp. 65-74, 2018 Feb. Abstract

Polyphenolic compounds are considered valuable secondary plant metabolites owing to the myriad of biological activities they exert. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying various concentrations of the plant growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA), on Thymus vulgaris L. while subjecting the plant to decreasing amounts of irrigation water. The following parameters were monitored; total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield and composition of the essential oil, and antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts. Drought alone significantly (P < 0.05) increased the polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield of the essential oil and antioxidant activity. The total flavonoid content in control plants was 6.1 ± 0.3 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. However, in drought stressed plants, (irrigated at 25% of the field capacity) sprayed with 3 mM SA, the flavonoid content increased to 32.1 ± 0.1 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. Moreover, the total phenolic content increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 to 68.5 ± 1.2 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of gallic acid in the same test plants. Radical scavenging activity, using DPPH assay, was measured for the different plant treatments. A decrease from 74.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml to 36.6 ± 0.9 μg/ml of IC was recorded in the drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 3 mM SA compared with the control plants. The variability in polyphenolic composition between the control plants and plants with the highest total polyphenolic content was investigated by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was detected as the major component in samples from both treatments, with a higher percentage observed upon subjecting the plant to the test conditions (25% FC and sprayed with 3 mM SA). The highest yield of the essential oil (1 ± 0.06 %v/w) was obtained from drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 2 mM SA. GC/MS analysis of oil samples revealed that the Thymol content increased with drought stress, while that of p-cymene decreased. However, an increase of p-cymene was witnessed as a result of SA spraying.