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Al-Mousawi, S. M., M. S. Moustafa, I. A. Abdelhamid, and M. H. Elnagdi, "Functionally Substituted Nitriles as Versatile Reagents in Organic Synthesis: Recent Developments in Our Laboratories", Current Organic Synthesis, 2011. Abstract

New synthetic approaches to the functionally substituted nitriles as well as the chemical reactivity profiles of these substances are reviewed.

Frey, C. M., E. Parlow, R. Vogt, M. Harhash, and M. A. M. Wahab, "Flux Measurements in Cairo", Int. J. Climatol, vol. 4, pp. 2635-2660, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Cairo Air Pollution and Climate (CAPAC) is dedicated to the understanding of the urban energy balance inCairo, Egypt, through measurements from space and at ground stations. The in situ measurements will provide a focused insight into three carefully chosen microclimates (urban, suburban-agriculture, and suburban-desert) and provide at the sametime ground-truth data for satellite image analysis, which will expand the acquired knowledge into the spatial domain. Insitu measurements were made during a field campaign in Greater Cairo from November 2007 to February 2008. In thisstudy, the dataset of the CAPAC measurement campaign will be presented and analysed in terms of use for a remote sensingstudy. Measured variables complied with our expectations. The urban area featured a distinct nocturnal heat island. Duringthe day the choice of reference station was responsible for the magnitude of the heat island. The diurnal cycle of radiativetemperature at the suburban-desert station clearly exceeded the one at the urban station, thus the urban setting seemed tohave a better heat storage than the suburban-desert. The stations also determined the partitioning of the turbulent heat fluxes.
While in Cairo and at the suburban-desert station most of the available energy was partitioned into the sensible heat flux,the suburban-agricultural station maintained a high latent heat flux. The radiation and soil heat flux measurements provedto be applicable for comparison with remotely sensed data. However, the analysis of the turbulent heat fluxes showedthat several constraints exist: measured fluxes tend to underestimate the actual flux and directional effects complicate theinterpretation. An energy balance closure and footprint modelling is necessary to compare measured fluxes with satelliteimage retrieved products. Finally, turbulent fluxes are time averages, which is contrary to the remote sensing principle. Consequently, a direct use is problematic.

Alasaad, S., R.?nC. Soriguera, M. Abu-Madi, A. E. Behairy, P. D.?ez Banos, A. P?riz, J. Fickel, and X. - Q. Zhu, "A Fluorescence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction-Linked Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) Assay for the Identification of Fasciola Spp", Parasitology Research, 2011.
Alasaad, S., R.?nC. Soriguera, M. Abu-Madi, A. E. Behairy, P. D.?ez Banos, A. P?riz, J. Fickel, and X. - Q. Zhu, "A Fluorescence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction-Linked Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) Assay for the Identification of Fasciola Spp", Parasitology Research, 2011.
Salah, A. E. L. - W. A., E. L. M. El-Kader, and E. S., "First Record of Frankliniella Occidentalis and Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus in Egypt", Journal of Life Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The presence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was detected for the first time in Egypt. This species was found on ornamental plants as well as weeds grown in the Giza region during two field surveys carried out in the flowering seasons (July/August) of 2005 and 2006. Out of the 34 plant species inspected, this thrips was recorded on 27 species. Antirrhinum majus harbored the highest number of the thrips. F. occidentalis was differentiated from the onion thrips Thrips tabaci, which was often encountered on the same plant. The differences between the two species were evident in the number of segments of adult antennae, the pronotum of the prothorax, the adult wings and the 8th abdominal tergite by analyzing mounted specimens. F. occidentalis was encountered on Ipomoea tricolor plants (Convolvulacae) with prominent signs of a virus infection, from which impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) was isolated. The isolate was maintained in a greenhouse on begonia as a virus source. The virus was sap transmitted to a small range of plants, which developed characteristic symptoms of INSV. Infection was confirmed in all inoculated plants by DAS-ELISA using specific antiserum. Out of the 34 species collected in the field, INSV was found on plants of at least 16 tested plant species. This is the first reported occurrence of INSV in Egypt. Insect transmission tests were carried out using nymphs and adults of either F. occidentalis, F.tritci or T. tabaci species. F. occidentalis proved to be the vector of the virus, while T. tabaci and F.tritici failed to transmit INSV.

Morsy, K., S. Abdel-Monem, F. Abdel-Ghaffar, A. - R. Bashtar, A. Al-Ghamdi, and R. Abdel-Gaber, "First Record of Benedenia Sciaenae (Monogenea: Capsalidae) Infecting the brown-Spotted Grouper Fish Epinephelus Chlorostigma (Family: Serranidae) from the Red Sea in Egypt", Life Science Journal, 2011.
Amer, M. M., K. M. EL-Bayomi, Zeinab, and S. A. M. Girh, "Field Studies on Effect of Probiotic on Reproductivity of 51 Weeks Old Broiler Breeder Chickens Fed on Mycotoxins Contaminated Ration", Journal of American Science, 2011.
ahmed, S. S., and M. mohamed el-mogy, "Field Evaluation of Some Biological Formulations Against ThripsTabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Onion", World Applied Sciences Journal, 2011. Abstract

Two biological formulations, neem (Nimbecidine) &Beauveriabassiana (Bio-Power) and jojoba oil were used for control onion thrips, T. tabaci in onion field. Also, vegetative characteristics and yield and germination of onion seeds were considerable. The evaluation was conducted in onion field at 2007/2008 season and repeated at 2008/2009 season. Two rates for each formulation, oil and a recommended rate of Malathion (reference insecticide) were sprayed three times for each season while the control was sprayed with distilled water. The first and second sprayings were carried out during the growing period while the third spray was during the flowering period. Results showed that all tested products revealed significant reduction in thrips populations on both growing and flowering periods. Bio-Power exhibited the highest effective on the growing period (2nd spray) followed by jojoba oil, Nimbecidine and Malathion at 2007/2008 season, while Malathion was the highest with the same spray on the growing period followed by jojoba oil, Nimbecidine and Bio-Power at 2008/2009 season. On the flowering period, Nimbecidine and Malathion were more effective on thrips population at 2008/2009 season as well as they gave the highest significant seed yield. Vegetative characteristics and seed germination were also improved. In conclusion, it can be use Bio-Power and Jojoba oil on growing period and Nimbecidine on flowering period in integrated pest management of onion crop.

Moharram, M. A., A. F. H. El-kader, K. I. Grais, M. G. Khafagi, and F. Mamdouh, "Factors Controlling the Structural Properties of Carbon Nitride Films Deposited by Electrochemical Method", Journal of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, 2011. Abstract

Polycrystalline carbon nitride thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by electrolysis of methanol-urea solution at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. The effect of the process parameters, namely deposition time, concentration and applied voltage on growth and bonding state of carbon nitride (CNx) thin films was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Hegazy, A. K., N. T. Abdel-Ghani, and G. A. El-Chaghaby, "Factorial Design for Optimizing the Removal of Aluminium from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Typha Domingensis Phytomass", Desalination and Water Treatment, 2011. Abstract

Typha domingensis phytomass is used as a biosorbent for aluminium ions removal from aqueous solution. A full 23 factorial design of experiments is used to obtain the best conditions of biosorption of Al3? from water solutions. The three factors screened are temperature, pH, and biosorbent dosage. Two levels for each factor are used; pH (2.5 and 6.0), temperature (25 and 45_C), and phytomass loading weight (0.5 and 1 g/50 ml). Batch experiments are carried out using 50 ml solutions containing 7 mg/L Al3? simulating its concentration in a real wastewater effluent.

Metwally, N. H., F. M. Abdelrazek, and A. Jaeger, "Facile Synthesis of New (Z)-6-Arylmethylidene- 1,3,4- Thiadiazin-5(6H)-One Derivatives", Chemistry Heterocyclic Compounds11: 1813-1816, 2012. Abstract

Aryl-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids reacted with acetohydrazonyl chlorides in refluxing absolute ethanol in the presence of equimolar amount of triethylamine forming (Z)-6- arylmethylidene- 1,3,4-thiadiazin-5-one derivatives. X-Ray study on the crystal of one of the obtained products was carried out.

Farghaly, T. A., S. M. Riyadh, and M. A. M. A. A. Ramadan, "A Facile One-pot Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrido [2,3d][1,2,4] Triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ones", Acta Chim. Slov. 58, 2011. Abstract

A series of pyrido[2,3-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ones (8) has been synthesised via reaction of 5-substituted-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (3) or its methylthio derivative 4 with hydrazonoyl chlorides 5. Al- ternative syntheses of products 8 were carried out either by reaction of enaminone 1 with 7-amino-1,3-disubstituted[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-one (10) or via the Japp-Klingemann reaction of compound 13. Both conventional thermal and microwave irradiation techniques were used for synthesis of the target products 8 and a comparative study of these techniques using triethylamine or chitosan, as basic catalysts, was carried out.The mechanisms of the reactions under investigation are discussed. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized products was evaluated.

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