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Kudugunti, S. K., H. Thorsheim, M. S. Yousef, L. Guan, and M. Y. Moridani, "The Metabolic Bioactivation of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Mediated by Tyrosinase Selectively Inhibits Glutathione S-Transferase", Journal Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2011.
El-Sherif, R. M., S. A. Khalil, and W. A. Badawy, "Metal", J. Alloys and Compounds, 2011. Abstract

Etching of silicon and formation of definite porous surfaces can be carried out by different methods. Metal-assisted etching represents a convenient method for the application of induced etching for beneficial applications. Porous silicon layers (PSL) on Si are useful and important in solar energy conversion and optoelectronics. Porous silicon on silicon increases the effective area and thus higher optical absorption as well as solar conversion efficiency can be achieved.

Emaraa, A. A. A., M. A. Tawabb, M. A. El-ghamrya, and M. Z. Elsabeeb, "Metal Uptake by Chitosan Derivatives and Structure Studies of the Polymer Metal Complexes", Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011. Abstract

Two modified chitosan polymers were obtained by reaction of chitosan with cinnamoyl chloride and cinnamoyl isothiocyanate to produce two new derivatives. The new modified polymers were characterized by elemental and spectral analysis to confirm their structures.

El-halim, H. A. F., N. F. A. El-Dien, G. G. Mohamed, and N. A. Mohmed, "Metalloantibiotics: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Clotrimazole Metal Chelates, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization", Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, 2011. Abstract

{Metal complexes of clotrimazole (CLMZ) drug were prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, magnetic moment, molar conductance, and thermal analyses techniques.The complexes have the general formulae [MCl2(H2O)2(L)2].yH2O (where M = Mn(II), Cu(II)), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)

El-Baky, A., H. Hanaa, and E. B. G.S., "Microalgae as a Source of Biofuel", Advances in Energy Research, 2011. Abstract

Nowadays, the use of fossil fuels as energy is caused global warming by increases of greenhouse effect gases concentrations in the atmosphere. Therefore renewable clean energy is required for replacing fossil fuel with biomass to reduce the CO2 emission. The developed of renewable energy is constantly increasing as alternative source of fossil fuel. A strategy to develop high performing micro-organisms has to consider the product of desire. Microalgae biomasses appear to be the most promising source for production and applications of interest renewable energy. With development in genetic and metabolic processing, microalgae can meet the high demands of bio-energy. This review is discusses the production of bioenergy from microalgae.

Haggag, M., M. I. Ali, M. Eweis, and B. Hassanein, "Microflora Isolated from Preoperative Conjunctivas, the Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and their Antibiotic Profile", Journal of American Science, 2011. Abstract

The existence of bacterial flora in apparently healthy conjunctiva has been reported in several studies. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) have been isolated from clinically healthy conjunctivas. Chloramphenicol eye drops are useful for the treatment of MRSA ocular surface infection. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA and MRCNS isolates. Also to assess the in vitro susceptibility of the conjunctival bacterial

Haggag, M., M. I. Ali, M. Eweis, and B. Hassanein, "Microflora Isolated from Preoperative Conjunctivas, the Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and their Antibiotic Profile", Journal of American Science, 2011. Abstract

The existence of bacterial flora in apparently healthy conjunctiva has been reported in several studies. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) have been isolated from clinically healthy conjunctivas. Chloramphenicol eye drops are useful for the treatment of MRSA ocular surface infection. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA and MRCNS isolates. Also to assess the in vitro susceptibility of the conjunctival bacterial

Abdel-Ghaffar, F., A. - R. Bashtar, H. Mehlhorn, K. Al-Rasheid, and K. Morsy, "Microsporidian Parasites: A Danger Facing Marine Fishes of the Red Sea", Parasitology Research, 2011.
Faty, R. A. A. M., "Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Unusual Coupling of Some Novel Pyrido[3,2-F][1,4]Thiazepines", Molecules, 2011. Abstract

3-Amino-3-thioxopropanamide (1) reacted with ethyl acetoacetate to form6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide (2), which reacted with ?-haloketones 3 to produce 2,3-disubstituted-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H,5H-pyrido[3,2-f]-[1,4] thiazepin-5-ones 4a-c. Benzoylation of 4c led to the formation of the dibenzoate derivative 9. Compounds 4a-c could be prepared stepwise through the formation of S-alkylated derivatives 10a-c. Compounds 2, 4a-c, 9 and 10a-c were prepared using microwave as a source of heat, and gave better yields in shorter times than those achieved by traditional methods. Coupling of 4a-c with arenediazonium chlorides proceeded unusually to give the 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(arylazo)thieno[2,3-b]pyridin-3(2H)-one ring contraction products 14. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were proven by spectral and chemical methods.

Bunaciu, A. A., R. E. M. Nashar, and H. Y. Aboul-Enein, "Mini Review: Determination of Sildenafil Citrate in Pharmaceutical Preparations", Analytical Letters, 2011. Abstract

Sildenafil citrate (SC) is a commonly used pharmaceutical compound in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Many side effects were reported for overdose including: headaches; fainting resulting from dilation of blood vessels, and blue-tinted vision. Many analytical methods are reported in literature for the assay of sildenafil citrate in its generic form or pharmaceutical formulations; these will be summarized in the present mini review.

Kashouty, M. E., "Modeling of Limestone Aquifer in the Western Partof the River Nile Between Beni Suef and El Minia, Upper Egypt", Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2011. Abstract

A robust classification scheme for partitioning groundwater chemistry into homogeneous groups was an important tool for the characterization of Eocene limestone aquifer. The aquifer locally composed of chalky limestone with thin clay intercalated (Samalut Fm.); the fissures; the joints; and the fractures represent the conduits of the aquifer system.

Ahmed, M. A., S. I. El-dek, S. F. Mansour, and N. Okasha, "Modification of Mn nanoferrite Physical Properties by Gamma, Neutron, and Laser Irradiations", Solid State Sciences, 2011. Abstract

Manganese nanocrystalline ferrite powders were synthesized using citrate precursor technique. The ferrite samples were subjected to different types of irradiation; gamma rays, neutrons, and laser photons to compare their effects on the physical properties of prepared ferrite. The samples were characterized by XRD and IR techniques. XRD shows a shift in all planes keeping the spinel structure stable. The magnetic and dielectric behavior for the irradiated and unirradiated samples was investigated at different temperatures. The data recommended the use of this nanoferrite as radiation detector.

Bulot, L. G., J. - L. Latil, J. Vermeulen, and M. F. Aly, "Mogharaeceras priscum (Douvill", Geologica Carpathica, 2011. Abstract

The type material of the poorly known and monotypic genus Mogharaeceras is revised. Relationship with Pulchelliidae, Engonoceratidae and Barremitinae are discussed. All the available evidence suggests that Mogharaeceras is an offshoot of Barremitites and that it should be classified in the Barremitinae. New material from Egypt allows us to establish the Late Barremian age of this taxon.

Osman, K., M. Aly, A. Kheader, and K. Mabrok, "Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt", World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2011. Abstract

Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

Kholmurodov, K., E. Dushanov, K. Yasuoka, H. Khalil, A. Galal, S. Ahmed, N. Sweilam, and H. Moharram, "Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Interaction of Ethanol-Water Mixture With A Pt Surface", Natural Science, 2011.
Moghaieb, R. E. A., A. - H. A. Abdel-Hadi, and N. B. Talaat, "Molecular Markers Associated with Salt Tolerance in Egyptian Wheats", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicitycaused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticumaestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2weeks. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all cultivars. The difference in osmoticadjustment between the cultivars was correlated with the concentrations of minerals examined such asNa+ and K+. The salt tolerance in the T. aestivum cultivar Gemmiza 10 and in T. durum cultivars Sohagand BeniSweif was due to higher ability to maintain osmotic potential of the cells than the othercultivars by increase in osmoticum concentration under salt stress. The genetic variation andrelationships among different wheat genotypes with different responses to salt stress were alsoinvestigated by RAPD and SSR analyses. 82 out of 118 RAPD markers detected were polymorphic(69.5%) and 42 out of 59 SSR alleles were polymorphic (71%), and can be considered as useful markersfor the wheat cultivars tested. 18 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) markers and 13 simplesequence repeats (SSR) markers generated were found to be genotype-specific. Seven markersdistinguished the cultivar BeniSweif, six markers for the cultivar Sohag and two markers for thecultivar Gemmiza 10. These markers can be verified as being genetic markers associated with salt

Afify, A. E. - M. M. R., S. A. Fayed, and E. A. Shalaby, "Monitoring of basic and acid radicals load in main canal, Giza governorate: A risk to health of consumers", Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2011. Abstract

The main canal (Masraf El-Moheet) is one of the largest canals in Giza governorate (Egypt). Due to the extended domestic activities and urbanization as well as the continuous industrial and agricultural growth of the region, water quality is potentially changing and causes fish floating and death. This study was conducted to measure toxic metals concentrations in water samples along the main channel using ICP Spectrometer (iCAP 6000 Series; Thermo Scientific). The most pronounced feature is the highest concentration of Fe, NH4, Al, Pb and Cr in main canal (35.28, 11.55, 9.318, 0.386 and 0.748 mg L- 1, respectively) when compared with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of metals levels showed significant difference among the regions. The present results showed that the collected water samples based on the higher levels of metal accumulation could be the first reason for fish floating and death in these regions, in addition to unsafe use for human consumption.

Farag, R.S., A. Latif, M.S., A. El-Gawad, A.E., Dogheim, and S.M., "Monitoring of pesticide residues in some Egyptian herbs, fruits and vegetables", International Food Research Journal, 2011. Abstract

One hundred thirty two samples of fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices collected from Egyptianlocal markets were analyzed for pesticide residues. Contamination with pesticide residues reached 54.55% while samples free from contamination reached 45.45%.

K.F.El-Sahhar, R. M. Nassar, and H. M. Farag, "Morphological and Anatomical Studies of Artemisia Vulgaris L", Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2011. Abstract

This paper is the second part in a study concerning with various botanical characters of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.). This piece of work aimed to study the anatomical structure of various plant organs and composition of the volatile oil. Data obtained could be summarized as follows:

El-Sahhar, K. F., D. M. Nassar, and H. M. Farag, "Morphological And Anatomical Studies of Santolina Chamaecyparissus L", Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2011. Abstract

This is a detailed botanical study of two parts about lavender cotton (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). In this paper, the morphological characters of plant are investigated. Lavender cotton is an evergreen dwarf subshrub 40 cm high, silvery gray and much branched, often propagates from cuttings of tender new growth at branches terminal. The root system is adventitious. The main stem and plant height increased slowly in length during the whole growing season with a total increase of some 10 cm. The main stem increased in the mean time in both of its length and the number of internodes. The plant developed a great number of lateral branches of different degrees with a maximum of 13.8 primary branches and 77.0 secondary branches. Growth of plant is depending mainly on the lateral branches. Leaves are 1.5-2 cm long, simple, spatulate, pinnately lobed, alternately arranged and petiolate. Leaves are aromatic when crushed. Flowering stage started April- May. Toward mid-August the main stem terminated into an inflorescence of flower buds followed by the lateral branches. Flowering continued throughout a period of four months Plant developed a maximum of 126.3 inflorescences. The inflorescence is a simple racemose head developing solitary at shoot apices of main stem and lateral branches.

Morsy, K., S. Abdel-Monem, and A. - R. Bashtar, "Morphological and Morphometric Characterization Of A New Digenetic Trematode, Proenenterum Sp", Journal of American Science, 2011.
Nassar, M. A. A., H. R. H. Ramadan, and H. M. S. Ibrahim, "Morphological Characteristics of Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Senna occidentalis (L", Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2011. Abstract

In this study, morphological information is produced as evidence for proper delimitation of Senna occidentalis (L.) link taxonomy. The field work was carried out during the growing season of 2008 in order to follow up the morphology of vegetative and reproductive growth of studied species throughout the successive stages of its entire life span. Germination of seeds and yield components at harvest time were also taken in consideration. Such knowledge may fulfill information acquisition in this concern.

Alsafy, M. A. M., and K. H. El-Shahat, "Morphological Evaluation of Ovary in Relation to Recovery, Quality of Oocytes and Steroid Production in Sheep", Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 2011.
Badee, A. Z. M., S. A. El-Nawawi, H. M. Ali, and A. A. E. El-Kader, "Morphology, properties and safety of microencapsulated orange peel oil", World Applied Sciences Journal, 2011. Abstract

Encapsulation is a current, important and broadly used process to retain and protect volatile and flavoring compounds in commercial food products. Unfortunately, production of these materials is largely an empirical science. In the present investigation, gum Arabic was used as carrier and orange peel oil was chosen as a core ingredient because, besides having a great economic importance in food industry, its volatile components are highly sensitive to oxidation by effect of temperature, light and oxygen presence. Although several encapsulation methods have been reported, the spray drying technology has become one of the most important processes used to produce dry flavors from liquids throughout the food and beverage. Orange peel oil was encapsulated with gum Arabic via spray drying using inlet and exit air temperatures of 200 C and 100 C, resp. The resultant powders were analyzed for moisture content, surface content and total oil. The high retention % of orange peel oil powder (89%) could be successfully prepared in the gum Arabic materials with low surface content comparing with 20% w/w of the conventional methods. As regard to the safety of encapsulated orange oil, it was noticed that glucose serum, cholesterol and aminotransferases enzymes exhibited no significant changes as compared to control. Meanwhile, creatinine content (mg/dl)was significantly increased from 0.8 (in control) to 1.06 mg/dl, after encapsulated orange oil treatment.

Mazeed, and A.M., "Morphometry and Number of Spermatozoa in Drone Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Reared Under Different Conditions", Eur J. Entomol, 2011. Abstract

The effects of three factors operating during pre-emergence development period on some of the characteristics of droneswere studied. Weight of newly emerged drones, length of forewing, length of tibia, length of femur, length and width of basitarsusand number of spermatozoa in drones from colonies in which the workers had access to drone brood (A), the size of brood cells differed(B) or the colony had a queen or was queenless (C), were determined.