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Zohdi, H. F., N. M. Rateb, and S. M. Elnagdy, "Green Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of some New Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Hexahydropyrimidines by Grinding", European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011. Abstract

A series of trifluoromethyl-substituted hexahydropyrimidine derivatives were efficiently synthesized in excellent yields via one-pot three-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ethyl trifluoroacetoacetate and thiourea(urea) in presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid under solvent-free conditions at room temperature by grinding. The present method does not involve any hazardous organic solvent and has proven to be simple, efficient, environmentally benign and cost-effective compared with the classical synthetic methods. These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities against E. coli and B. thuringiensis and found to exhibit remarkably better antibacterial activities than the control drug.

MotiorRahman, M., A. A. Soaud, F. A. H. Darwish, FaruqGolam, and M. Sofian-Azirun, "Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Maize Plants as Affected by Elemental Sulfur and Nitrogen Fertilizer in Sandy Calcareous Soil", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of elemental sulfur (S0) combined with or without Nfertilizer on the growth and nutrient uptake such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), iron (Fe),zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) by maize plants grown in sandy calcareous soils. Elemental S at rates of0, 1, 5 and 10 t ha-1 were tested combined with or without N fertilizer at rates of 0 and 0.34 t ha-1 in potsusing normal irrigation water (pH >7.5) under Al Zaid and Al Semaih soils in evaporative cooledgreenhouse conditions. Electrical conductivity (EC) increased (2.50 to 2.95 dSm-1) significantly anddecreased (5.07 to 6.06 dSm-1) with application of S0 at rates of 5 and 10 t ha-1 combined with N fertilizerin both Al Zaid and Al Semaih soils, respectively. Soil acidity improved by decreasing soil pH (1.41to1.52 unit) with application of S0 at the rate of 10 t ha-1 combined with N fertilizer. Addition of S0 at therate of 5 t ha-1 combined with N fertilizer recorded superior total dry matter (TDM) and maximum uptakeof all nutrients in both soils. Total dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake had positive correlation,while soil pH showed negative correlation with TDM and uptake of all nutrients. Based on experimentalfindings, S0 at the rate of 5 t ha-1 combined with N fertilizer is suitable for growth of maize in both soils.

Hegazy, A. K., M. H. Emam, and A. A. Alatar, "Growth and Reproductive Attributes of Radionuclide Phytoremediators in the Mediterranean Coastal Black Sands", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

Growth and resource allocation of three black sand plants namely Cakilemaritima, Senecioglaucusand Rumexpictus were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. The effect of absorbed radionuclideson the plant growth was monitored at different growth stages including seedling, juvenile, flowering,fruiting and senescing stages. The study reveals that growth attributes including relative growth rate,net assimilation rate, leaf are index and specific leaf area, dry matter allocated to stem and leaves andnumber of reproductive organs decreased with the increase of radionuclide content of the plant, whilethe dry matter allocated to root and reproductive organs and root to shoot weight ratio were associatedwith high level of radionuclides. Because of their tolerance to high levels and accumulation ofradionuclides, the species C. maritima, S. glaucus and R. pictus could be potential candidate plants forradio-phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium and thorium.

Aziz, A. A. B., E. S. Hegazi, T. A. Yehia, N. E. Kassim, and T. S. M. Mahmoud, "Growth, Flowering And Fruiting of Manzanillo Olive Trees as Affected by Benzyladenine", Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants, 2011.
El-Ghani, M. A. M., M. M. Abou-EL-Enain, A. I. Aboel-Atta, and E. A. Hussein, "Habitat Heterogeneity and Soil-vegetation Relations in South of the Nile Delta, Egypt", Ecologia Mediterranea, 2011. Abstract

Floristic composition and soil characters in representative habitats of the southern Nile Deltaregion in Qalyubia were analyzed in terms of habitat variations and species diversity. A totalof 90 sites were surveyed and nineteen environmental factors were recognized in four main habitats: canal banks, cultivated lands, waste lands and sandy plains. Basic statistical treatments were established by using SPSS v. 10.0. The produced data were subjected to cluster analysis by using MVSP v. 3.1; indirect and direct ordination methods i.e. Detrended and Canonical Correspondence analyses, respectively by using CANOCO v. 4.5. A total of 164 species representing c. 7.7% of the Egyptian plant species were recorded and their life-form spectrum was identified. The majority of species were belonging to the families: Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae and Cruciferae.

El-Kolaly, H. A., and S. M. Seif, "Hadronic Production of MSSM Higgs Boson with a Pair of Stops at LHC", Physical Review D, 2011. Abstract

We present the SUSY QCD corrections to the production of light neutral MSSM Higgs boson with a pair of supersymmetric scalar partners of the top quark at next-to-leading order at LHC. We study the dependence of the lowest order total cross section on both the renormalization/factorization scale and the Higgs mass in the framework of minimal supergravity, taking the point SPS1a as a benchmark, for the numerical calculations. The dependence of the total cross section is strong. Including the NLO SUSY QCD corrections significantly reduce and stabilize the dependence of the lowest order total cross section on the renormalization/factorization scale.

Samer, M., C. Loebsin, M. Fiedler, C. Ammon, W. Berg, P. Sanftleben, and R. Brunsch, "Heat Balance and Tracer Gas Technique for Airflow Rates Measurement and Gaseous Emissions Quantification in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings", Energy and Buildings, 2011. Abstract

Experiments were performed to study the airflow rates (AFRs) in a naturally ventilated building through four summer seasons and three winter seasons. The AFRs were determined using heat balance (HB), tracer gas technique (TGT) and CO2-balance as averages of the values of all experiments carried out through the different seasons. The statistical analyses were correlation analysis, regression model and t-test. Continuous measurements of gaseous concentrations (NH3, CH4, CO2 and N2O) and temperatures inside and outside the building were performed. The HB showed slightly acceptable results through summer seasons and unsatisfactory results through winter seasons. The CO2-balance showed unexpected high differences to the other methods in some cases. The TGT showed reliable results compared to HB and CO2-balance. The AFRs, subject to TGT, were 0.12 m3 s?1 m?2, 1.15 m3 s?1 cow?1, 0.88 m3 s?1 LU?1, 56 h?1, 395 m3 s?1 and 470 kg s?1 through summer seasons, and 0.08 m3 s?1 m?2, 0.83 m3 s?1 cow?1, 0.64 m3 s?1 LU?1 39 h?1, 275 m3 s?1 and 328 kg s?1 through winter seasons. The AFRs are not independent values, rather they were estimated for specific reference values, which are: area, cow and LU as well as rates. The emission rates through summer seasons, subject to TGT, were 9.4, 40, 3538 and 2.3 g h?1 cow?1; and through winter seasons were 4.8, 19, 2332 and 2.6 g h?1 cow?1, for NH3, CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively.

Sayed, M. M. A. A., and A. M. Soliman, "Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Cichorium Endivia L", Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The current study was carried out to elucidate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cichorium endivia L.leaves (HCE) against acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Oral administration of acetaminophen produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant increase in liver MDA and serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin and enzyme activities (AST, ALT and ALP). While a significant decrease in the levels of liver GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, serum total protein and albumin was recorded. Pre-treatment of rats with C.endivia leaves extract or silymarin for 21 days succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from acetaminophen as indicated by the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. These results substantiate the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of C.endivia leaves extract. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of HCE was found to be compatible with silymarin as a known hepatoprotective drug.

Aboul-Soud, M. A. M., A. M. Al-Othman, G. E. El-Desoky, Z. A. Al-Othman, K. Yusuf, J. Ahmad, and A. A. Al-Khedhairy, "Hepatoprotective Effects of Vitamin E/Selenium Against Malathion-Induced Injuries on the Antioxidant Status Andapoptosis-Related Gene Expression in Rats", Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The present study is undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E(?-tocopherol) and selenium (Se) against malathion (MTN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuriesin experimental rats. Male rats were randomly divided into eight groups comprised of 10 rats each. The1st group served as a negative control (CN), whereas the 2nd was supplemented with a combination of?-tocopherol (100 mg kg-1 body weight, b.w.)/Se (0.1 mg kg-1 bw). The 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were respectivelyadministered with increasing doses of MTN equivalent to 1/50 LD50 (M1/50), 1/25 LD50 (M1/25) and 1/10LD50 (M1/10), respectively. The 6th, 7th and 8th groups were administered the same doses of MTN as in the3rd, 4th and 5th groups with a concomitant supplementation with ?-tocopherol/Se. Subchronic exposure ofrats to MTN for 45 days resulted in statistical dose-dependent decrease in acetylcholinestrase (AChE)activity, increase in oxidative stress marker lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in reduced glutathione(GSH) level. Moreover, the levels of glutathione persoxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) andcatalase (CAT) were significantly decline in response to MTN exposure in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore,histopathological studies of liver in the rats which received MTN exhibited, moderate to severedegenerative and necrotic changes in the hepatocytes. Notably, the administration of ?-tocopherol/Se protectedthe liver of rats exposed to MTN as evidenced by the appearance of normal histological structures,significant attenuation of the decline in all antioxidant enzymes tested (i.e. GPx, SOD and CAT), significantrecovery in the GSH level and statistical reduction in LPO, as compared to the experimental rat.

Ramadan, A., M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and A. Azooz, "Herbal remedies of Nanobacteria", Nano Science and Nano Tecknology, 2011. Abstract

Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of nanobacterial opportunistic infections. The kidney is the main part of the urinary tract. Drinking too much or too little water, administration of antibiotics as well as excess consumption of calcium or oxalic acid causes awakening of the kidneys resulting in renal disorders. When the kidneys are not filtering the blood properly, toxins accumulate causing lower sciatic pain, kidney stones, bladder stones, painful or difficult urination, and urinary tract infection. These types of disorders in the renal system can be treated with Ayurveda, an indigenous system of medicine in India. In Ayurveda, single plant or combinations of different plants are used in the treatment (Rajurkar and Damame 1998). Nanobacteria appear as self-propagating calcifying macromolecular complexes found in bovine and human blood and blood products. Nanobacteria were found to be present in fetal bovine serum and cultured cell lines, to arouse immune response and to infect humans, and were published as an infectious cause for pathological calcification (Kajander and Ciftcioglu 1998). These are very small, Gram negative bacteria. They belong to the Proteobacteria group and are about 1/20 the size of most of their larger cousins in this group. They may play a pathogenic role in kidney stones and atherosclerosis. These bacteria are unique by developing a needle-shaped calcium apatite cell wall, forming an enclosure around the organism. This review of literature elucidates previous and current status of herbal remedies in treating nanobacteria.

Saleh, H. M., A. S. Shaker, A. M. Saafan, and A. K. H. Ibrahim, "Herpes Virus Reactivation by Low-Intensity Diode and Co2 Lasers", Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 2011. Abstract

Background:The herpes virus enters into latency after symptomatic or asymptomatic herpetic infection. During latency, the virus has no impact on infected cells. However, internal or external stimuli, including certain lasers, can induce virus reactivation.

Abdelrazek, F. M., A. A. Fadda, and S. S. Mohamed, "Heterosynthesis using nitriles: Novel pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines", Internat. J. Org. Chem., 2011. Abstract

2-Amino-4-benzoyl-1-arylpyrrole-3-carbonitriles react with arylidene malonodinitriles, ?-ketoesters and ?-diketones to afford pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives.

Mokbel, A. N., O. E. S. Tookhy, A. A. Shamaa, D. Sabry, L. A. Rashed, and A. E. M. Sayed, "Homing and Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Chondral Defects in Dogs", Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 2011. Abstract

This study was intended to verify the likelihood of homing of intra-articularily (I.A.) injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its involvement in the healing process of experimentally induced, acute and chronic, partial chondral defects in dogs.

Mokbel, A. N., O. E. S. Tookhy, A. A. Shamaa, L. A. Rashed, D. Sabry, and A. E. M. Sayed, "Homing and Reparative Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Autologus Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritic Animal Model", BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2011. Abstract

This work aimed to study the homing evidence and the reparative effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the healing process of induced osteoarthritis in experimental animal model (donkeys). Twenty-seven donkeys were equally divided into 3 groups based on the observation period after induction of arthritis (3, 6 and 9 weeks) to achieve different degrees of osteoarthritis. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of three animals each based on the follow-up period (1, 2 and 6 months) after treatment. The induction was done through intra-articular (IA) injection of 2ml of Amphotericin-B in both carpal joints. MSCs were harvested in a separate procedure, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) using monster GFP vector and suspended in hyaluronic acid for IA injection. Treatment approaches consisted of cell-treatment using MSCs suspended in 3 ml of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the right carpal joint; and using the same amount of (HA) but without MSCs for the left contralateral carpal joint to serve as a control. Animals were assessed clinically and radiologically before and after treatment. Synovial fluid was also evaluated. Histopathologically; articular cartilage structural changes, reduction of articular cartilage matrix staining, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone plate thickening were graded. Data was summarized using median and percentile for scores of histopathologic grading. Comparison between groups was done using non-parametric Mann Whitney test. The reparative effect of MSCs was significant both clinically and radiologically in all treated groups (P < 0.05) compared to the control groups. Fluorescence microscopy of sections of the cell-treated joints of all animals indicated that the GFP-transduced injected cells have participated effectively in the reparative process of the damaged articular surface and have integrated within the existing articular cartilage. The cells were associated with the surface of the cartilage and, were also detected in the interior. Homing was confirmed by the incorporation of injected GFP-labeled MSCs within the repaired newly formed cartilage. Significant recovery proves that the use of IA injection of autologous MSCs is a viable and a practical option for treating different degrees of osteoarthritis.

Zeid, K. A. M., M. B. Mohamed, and S. M. El-Shall, "Hybrid Au-CdSe and Ag-CdSe Nanoflowers and Core-Shell Nanocrystals via One-Pot Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth", Small, 2011. Abstract

A general approach, based on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of CdSe nanostructures on Au or Ag nanocrystals, for the synthesis of AuCdSe and AgCdSe hybrid nanostructures is developed. The new approach provides a versatile one-pot route for the synthesis of hybrid nanoflowers consisting of a gold or silver core and multipod CdSe rods or an intact CdSe shell with controlled thickness, depending on the nucleation and growth parameters. At lower growth temperatures such as 150 degrees C, the CdSe clusters are adsorbed on the surface of the metal cores in their surface defects, then multiple arms and branches form, resulting in nanoflower-shaped hybrid structures. Increasing the size of the metal core through the choice of the reducing and capping agents results in an improvement of the interface between the metal and CdSe domains, producing coreshell structures. The growth temperature appears to be the most important factor determining the nature of the interface between the metal and CdSe domains. At relatively high temperatures such as 300 degrees C, the formation of large, faceted Au cores creates preferential growth sites for the CdSe nanocrystalline shell, thus resulting in well-defined AuCdSe coreshell structures with large interfaces between the Au and CdSe domains. The present approach is expected to foster systematic studies of the electronic structures and optical properties of the metal semiconductor hybrid materials for potential applications in photovoltaic and nanoelectronic devices.

Farghaly, T. A., S. M. Gomha, E. M. H. Abbas, and M. M. Abdalla, "Hydrazonoyl Halides As Precursors For New Fused Heterocycles of5?- Reductase Inhibitors", Arch. Pharm. Chem. Life Sci., 2011.
Alaasara, M., C. Tschierskeb, and M. Prehmb, "Hydrogen-bonded Supramolecular Complexes Formed Between Isophthalic Acid and Pyridine-Based Derivatives", Liquid Crystals, 2011. Abstract

Two types of supramolecular liquid crystals were prepared through the formation of double hydrogen-bonded complexes between isophthalic acid (A) and two different groups of pyridine-based derivatives ( In and Ia-e). The first group of the base, In (molecular formula 4-CnH2n+1OC6H4COOC6H4-N=N-C5H4N) homologues differ from each other by the number of carbon atoms (n) in the alkoxy chain, which varies between 8, 10, 12 and 14 carbons. The second group of the pyridine-based derivatives, Ia-e (molecular formula 4-X-C6H4COOC6H4-N=N-C5H4N) analogues differ from each other by the terminal polar substituent, X, that changes between OCH3, CH3, H, NO2 and Br groups. In this manner two different groups of complexes are formed, one of them is A : 2In, (Group A), and the other is A : 2Ia-e, (Group B). All complexes were investigated for their mesophase behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry and polarised light microscopy. The formation of 1:2 hydrogen-bonded complexes was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and binary phase diagrams. Most complexes A and B show nematic and/or SmA phases. X-ray diffraction of the SmA phase of a representative complex of type A indicates a layer distance corresponding to only half of the length of the H-bonded complexes which is interpreted by a phase structure where these complexes adopt a U-shape which intercalate and form non-polar SmA phases.

El-Idreesy, T. T., and E. L. Clennan, "Hydrolytic stability of N-Methyl-2,6-dimesitylpyrylogen bis-tetrafluoroborate", Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2011. Abstract
El-Idreesy, T. T., and E. L. Clennan, "Hydrolytic stability of N-Methyl-2,6-dimesitylpyrylogen bis-tetrafluoroborate", Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2011. Abstract

The synthesis and characterization of a new mesityl ring substituted pyrylogen with a substantially decreased rate of reaction with water is reported. Computational and experimental data are presented that suggest that addition of water to the pyrylium ring of this highly sterically shielded pyrylogen is reversible. On the other hand, experimental data suggest that the overall hydrolysis of this new sterically

Abdel-wahab, A., A. - Maogood, and S., "Identification of Cryptosporidium Species Infecting Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt", Journal of American Science, 2011.
Ciobot?, V., W. Salama, N. Tarcea, P. R?sch, M. E. Aref, R. Gaupp, and J. Popp, "Identification of minerals and organic materials in Middle Eocene ironstones from the Bahariya Depression in the Western Desert of Egypt by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy", Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2011. Abstract

The Middle Eocene ironstone succession is located in the northeastern part of El Bahariya Depression,Western Desert, Egypt. This succession is subdivided into lower and upper sequences and consists of two main shallow marine ironstone facies associations.

Osman, K. M., Z. A. M. S. Girh, Bakry, M.A., and M. M. ElSafty, "Identification of the Salmonella Genes Yafd and Xtha: A Step into the Control of Salmonella Food Poisoning Associated with Consumption of Eggs in Egypt", Global Veterinaria, 2011. Abstract

All serotypes of non-typhoid Salmonella are considered as a potential hazard to human health and measures to prevent food-borne salmonellosis should therefore be directed there wise. Here we sought to report the identification and incidence of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium yafD and xthA gene families that are responsible for their persistence in egg albumen and their survival in egg are important for their transmission to the human population. The total incidence of Salmonella in the albumen samples was detected as 10.1% of the samples [Salmonella enteritidis (7.1%) and S. typhimurium (3.1%)]. As carrier for the yafD (86.7%) and xthA (13.3%) genes, S. enteritidis accounted for 85.0% of the Salmonella serotype isolates. On the other hand, S. typhimurium carrying the xthA gene, accounted for 100% of the total egg albumen Salmonella serotypes with the absence of the yafD gene from all of the S. typhimurium isolates.

Seufi, A. E. M., E. E. Hafez, and F. H. Galal, "Identification, Phylogenetic Analysis and Expression Profile of an Anionic Insect Defensin Gene, with Antibacterial Activity, from Bacterial Challenged Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera Littoralis", BMC Molecular Biology, 2011. Abstract

Background: Defensins are a well known family of cationic antibacterial peptides (AMPs) isolated from fungi, plants, insects, mussels, birds, and various mammals. They are predominantly active against gram (+) bacteria, and a few of them are also active against gram (-) bacteria and fungi. All insect defensins belonging to the invertebrate class have a consensus motif, C-X5-16-C-X3-C-X9-10-C-X4-7-CX1-C. Only seven AMPs have already been found in different lepidopteran species. No report was published on the isolation of defensin from the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

Bakry, F. A., R. T. Mohamed, and W. S. Hasheesh, "Impact of Methanol Extract of AdeniumObesum Plant on some Biochemical and Biological Parameters of BulinusTruncatus Snails", Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research, 2011.
Awad, M. I., M. M. Saleh, and T. Ohsaka, "Impact of SO2 Poisoning of Platinum Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode on Oxygen Reduction", Journal of Power Sources, 2011.