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Soliman, A. M., "Extract of Coelatura aegyptiaca, a freshwater clam, ameliorates hepatic oxidative stress induced by monosodium glutamate in rats", African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of Coelatura aegyptiaca extract (CE) and vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rat liver. Male rats were randomly divided into four main groups: control group, received distilled water; group 2 (100 mg/kg) and 3 (250 mg/kg) received CE for seven consecutive days. Group animals (24 rats) were administered MSG (4 mg/g body weight) daily for 10 days.

G., O. W., F. A. A. M., and Y. I. S., "Extraction of the Device Parameters of Al/P3OT/ITO Organic Schottky Diode Using J", Synthetic Metals, 2011.
Farghaly, T. A., S. M. Riyadh, and M. A. M. A. A. Ramadan, "A Facile One-pot Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrido [2,3d][1,2,4] Triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ones", Acta Chim. Slov. 58, 2011. Abstract

A series of pyrido[2,3-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ones (8) has been synthesised via reaction of 5-substituted-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (3) or its methylthio derivative 4 with hydrazonoyl chlorides 5. Al- ternative syntheses of products 8 were carried out either by reaction of enaminone 1 with 7-amino-1,3-disubstituted[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-one (10) or via the Japp-Klingemann reaction of compound 13. Both conventional thermal and microwave irradiation techniques were used for synthesis of the target products 8 and a comparative study of these techniques using triethylamine or chitosan, as basic catalysts, was carried out.The mechanisms of the reactions under investigation are discussed. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized products was evaluated.

Hegazy, A. K., N. T. Abdel-Ghani, and G. A. El-Chaghaby, "Factorial Design for Optimizing the Removal of Aluminium from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Typha Domingensis Phytomass", Desalination and Water Treatment, 2011. Abstract

Typha domingensis phytomass is used as a biosorbent for aluminium ions removal from aqueous solution. A full 23 factorial design of experiments is used to obtain the best conditions of biosorption of Al3? from water solutions. The three factors screened are temperature, pH, and biosorbent dosage. Two levels for each factor are used; pH (2.5 and 6.0), temperature (25 and 45_C), and phytomass loading weight (0.5 and 1 g/50 ml). Batch experiments are carried out using 50 ml solutions containing 7 mg/L Al3? simulating its concentration in a real wastewater effluent.

Moharram, M. A., A. F. H. El-kader, K. I. Grais, M. G. Khafagi, and F. Mamdouh, "Factors Controlling the Structural Properties of Carbon Nitride Films Deposited by Electrochemical Method", Journal of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, 2011. Abstract

Polycrystalline carbon nitride thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by electrolysis of methanol-urea solution at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. The effect of the process parameters, namely deposition time, concentration and applied voltage on growth and bonding state of carbon nitride (CNx) thin films was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

ahmed, S. S., and M. mohamed el-mogy, "Field Evaluation of Some Biological Formulations Against ThripsTabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Onion", World Applied Sciences Journal, 2011. Abstract

Two biological formulations, neem (Nimbecidine) &Beauveriabassiana (Bio-Power) and jojoba oil were used for control onion thrips, T. tabaci in onion field. Also, vegetative characteristics and yield and germination of onion seeds were considerable. The evaluation was conducted in onion field at 2007/2008 season and repeated at 2008/2009 season. Two rates for each formulation, oil and a recommended rate of Malathion (reference insecticide) were sprayed three times for each season while the control was sprayed with distilled water. The first and second sprayings were carried out during the growing period while the third spray was during the flowering period. Results showed that all tested products revealed significant reduction in thrips populations on both growing and flowering periods. Bio-Power exhibited the highest effective on the growing period (2nd spray) followed by jojoba oil, Nimbecidine and Malathion at 2007/2008 season, while Malathion was the highest with the same spray on the growing period followed by jojoba oil, Nimbecidine and Bio-Power at 2008/2009 season. On the flowering period, Nimbecidine and Malathion were more effective on thrips population at 2008/2009 season as well as they gave the highest significant seed yield. Vegetative characteristics and seed germination were also improved. In conclusion, it can be use Bio-Power and Jojoba oil on growing period and Nimbecidine on flowering period in integrated pest management of onion crop.

Amer, M. M., K. M. EL-Bayomi, Zeinab, and S. A. M. Girh, "Field Studies on Effect of Probiotic on Reproductivity of 51 Weeks Old Broiler Breeder Chickens Fed on Mycotoxins Contaminated Ration", Journal of American Science, 2011.
Morsy, K., S. Abdel-Monem, F. Abdel-Ghaffar, A. - R. Bashtar, A. Al-Ghamdi, and R. Abdel-Gaber, "First Record of Benedenia Sciaenae (Monogenea: Capsalidae) Infecting the brown-Spotted Grouper Fish Epinephelus Chlorostigma (Family: Serranidae) from the Red Sea in Egypt", Life Science Journal, 2011.
Salah, A. E. L. - W. A., E. L. M. El-Kader, and E. S., "First Record of Frankliniella Occidentalis and Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus in Egypt", Journal of Life Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The presence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was detected for the first time in Egypt. This species was found on ornamental plants as well as weeds grown in the Giza region during two field surveys carried out in the flowering seasons (July/August) of 2005 and 2006. Out of the 34 plant species inspected, this thrips was recorded on 27 species. Antirrhinum majus harbored the highest number of the thrips. F. occidentalis was differentiated from the onion thrips Thrips tabaci, which was often encountered on the same plant. The differences between the two species were evident in the number of segments of adult antennae, the pronotum of the prothorax, the adult wings and the 8th abdominal tergite by analyzing mounted specimens. F. occidentalis was encountered on Ipomoea tricolor plants (Convolvulacae) with prominent signs of a virus infection, from which impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) was isolated. The isolate was maintained in a greenhouse on begonia as a virus source. The virus was sap transmitted to a small range of plants, which developed characteristic symptoms of INSV. Infection was confirmed in all inoculated plants by DAS-ELISA using specific antiserum. Out of the 34 species collected in the field, INSV was found on plants of at least 16 tested plant species. This is the first reported occurrence of INSV in Egypt. Insect transmission tests were carried out using nymphs and adults of either F. occidentalis, F.tritci or T. tabaci species. F. occidentalis proved to be the vector of the virus, while T. tabaci and F.tritici failed to transmit INSV.

Alasaad, S., R.?nC. Soriguera, M. Abu-Madi, A. E. Behairy, P. D.?ez Banos, A. P?riz, J. Fickel, and X. - Q. Zhu, "A Fluorescence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction-Linked Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) Assay for the Identification of Fasciola Spp", Parasitology Research, 2011.
Alasaad, S., R.?nC. Soriguera, M. Abu-Madi, A. E. Behairy, P. D.?ez Banos, A. P?riz, J. Fickel, and X. - Q. Zhu, "A Fluorescence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction-Linked Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) Assay for the Identification of Fasciola Spp", Parasitology Research, 2011.
Al-Mousawi, S. M., M. S. Moustafa, I. A. Abdelhamid, and M. H. Elnagdi, "Functionally Substituted Nitriles as Versatile Reagents in Organic Synthesis: Recent Developments in Our Laboratories", Current Organic Synthesis, 2011. Abstract

New synthetic approaches to the functionally substituted nitriles as well as the chemical reactivity profiles of these substances are reviewed.

Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeha, A., E. Heldaa, N. Ghanem, F. Rings, D. Salilew-Wondim, D. Tesfaye, H. Sieme, K. Schellander, and M. Hoelker, "G6PDH-Activity In Equine Oocytes Correlates with Morphology, Expression of Candidate Genes For Viability, and Preimplantative in Vitro Development", Theriogenology, 2011. Abstract

Efficiencies for in vitro production of equine embryos are still low due to highly variable developmental competences of equine immature oocytes. In contrast to the equine, in vitro developmental competence of immature oocytes has been predicted successfully by the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) indicated by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) dye in a range of different species. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the association between G6PDH activity in equine oocytes with: (1) cumulus morphology and oocyte properties in terms of diameter and volume; (2) maturational competence; (3) gene expression of certain molecular markers; and (4) in vitro embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Equine oocytes were exposed to BCB

Al-Roba, A. A., M. A. M. Aboul-Soud, A. M. Ahmed, and A. A. Al-Khedhairy, "The Gene Expression of Caspasses is Up-Regulated During the Signaling Response of AedesCaspius Against Larvicidal Bacteria", African Journal of Biotechnologyces, 2011. Abstract
Zein, H. S., A. A. El-Sehemy, M. O. Fares, M. ElHefnawi, J. T. A. da Silva, and K. Miyatake, "Generation, characterization, and docking studies of DNA-hydrolyzing recombinant Fab antibodies", J. Mol. Recognit., 2011. Abstract

Previously we established a series of catalytic antibodies (catAbs) capable of hydrolyzing DNA prepared by hybridoma technology. A group of these catAbs exhibited high reactivity and substrate specificity. To determine the molecular basis for these catAbs, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed the variable regions of this group of antibodies as functional Fab fragments. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the expressed light chain (Vk) germline gene assignments confidently belonged to germline family Vk1A, gene bb1.1 and GenBank accession number EF672207 while heavy chain variable region VH genes belonged to VH1/VHJ558, gene V130.3 and GenBank accession number EF672221. A well-established expression system based on the pARA7 vector was examined for its ability to produce catalytically active antibodies. Recombinant Fab (rFab) fragments were purified and their hydrolyzing activity was analyzed against supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA (scDNA). The study of rFab provides important information about the potential catalytic activities of antibodies whose structure allows us to understand their basis of catalysis. Molecular surface analysis and docking studies were performed on the molecular interactions between the antibodies and poly(dA9), poly(dG9), poly(dT9), and poly(dC9) oligomers. Surface analysis identified the important sequence motifs at the binding sites, and different effects exerted by arginine and tyrosine residues at different positions in the light and heavy chains. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the protein DNA surrogate in the investigation of the origin of anti-DNA antibodies. These studies may define important features of DNA catAbs.

El-Bakatoushi, R., A. K. Hegazy, H. Saad, and M. Fawzy, "Genetic Diversity in Coastal and Inland Desert Populations of PeganumHarmala L", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011.
Amer, S. A. M., "Genetic variability of the Saudi Arabian Uromastyx Aegyptia Microlepis using Protein and Isoenzymes Electrophoreses", Advances In BioScience and Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

Electrophoresis for SDS-proteins and isoenzymes were conducted to investigate the genetic variations within the agamid lizard Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis inhabiting the desert of Saudi Arabia. Samples were collected from four localities: a) Ushayrah near the town of Taif, b) Al Gwaih near Riyadh, c) Nairyah near Dammam and d) Mouileh near Tabok. A range of 7 to 14 protein bands were recorded in the patterns of the studied samples as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Among them, only one fraction was recorded in all samples as a common protein band. Six arbitrary chosen enzymes were examined by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were ? and ? esterase (Est), acid phosphatase (Acph), Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) , Aldehyde oxidase (Ao) and peroxidase (Px). Seventeen heterogeneous alleles have been recorded; seven of them were fixed in all populations and 10 were polymorphic. Nearly all recorded alleles were monomeric in all samples. ?-Est2, ?-Est2, Acph2 and Px1 were restricted to Tabok samples and were not recorded in other localities. ?-Est3, Acph3, Adh1, Adh1and Px2 were not recorded in Taif samples and the latter one was not recorded in the Dammam samples. The similarity coefficient that has been calculated according to the number of sharing bands indicated the clustering of Tabok and Dammam populations together. The constructed tree based on the sharing protein bands and isozyme alleles revealed similar results regarding the kinship of both populations. The present results indicated that the populations of this subspecies exhibits high genetic variability among its populations.

Elsayed, G., S. A. M. Amer, and S. M. H. Sayed, "Genetic Variability of the Tropical Grasshopper Poecilocerus bufonius, in Saudi Arabia", Archives of Phytopathology and plant protection, 2011. Abstract

Electrophoresis for SDS-proteins and isoenzymes were applied to investigate the genetic variability within the tropical grasshopper Poecilocerus bufonius inhabits Saudi Arabia. Samples were selected from different localities that are encompassing the Sarawat mountains in the west and An-Nafud desert in the north and middle. A range of 2 to 14 protein bands were recorded in the studied samples as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, from which only two were common. The maximum number of protein bands has been recorded in the samples from the west and the minimum number has been recorded in the samples from the north and middle. Six arbitrary chosen enzymes were examined by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Saleh, H. A., M. El-Hariri, A. A. Moawad, and M. K. Refai, "Genotyping of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates Recovered from Human, Animals and Soil in El-Fayoum Governorate", International Journal of Genetics, 2011. Abstract

In the present work RAPD-PCR was used to study the relatedness among 10 strains of both Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans previously isolated from man, animals and soil in El-Fayoum Governorate. The profile of DNA fragments for C. albicans strains showed the differentiation of the genomic DNA of C. albicanss isolates into numbers of DNA bands, which were different in molecular weight. The dendogram analysis of RAPD pattern of C. albicans isolates using specific primers divided the isolates into 3 groups of high similarity (92 - 100 %) and a group of low similarity (21%).

Hassan, M. I., and N. A. Al-Abbad, "Glutamate and Caffeine Intake of Some Snacks and Drinks in Saudi Arabia", Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2011.
AlMusle, N. A., E. A. Hassan, A. S. A. - E. - M. Al-Sherbini, and M. G. A. Muhgoub, "Graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto gum karaya using diode laser (532nm)", Elixir Chem. Phys., 2011. Abstract

Graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) on Gum Karaya GK using diode laser (532 nm) was investigated. The results showed that, the optimum conditions to achieve efficient graft copolymerization were: 60 minutes laser irradiation time and 0.5 gm of GK, 0.142 gm of acrylamide (monomer). The percentage of graft efficiency and percentage of graft yield were 28.00%, and 98.59%, respectively.

Elkholy, S. S., K. D. Khalil, and M. Z. Elsabee, "Grafting of acryloyl cyanoacetohydrazide onto chitosan", J Polym Res., 2011. Abstract

Chitosan was grafted with a novel monomer namely Acryloyl cyanoacetohydrazide (ACAH) which contains carbonyl and cyano groups. The graft copolymerization was conducted in heterogeneous phase using potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) and sodium bisulfate (NaHSO3) as redox initiators. The effect of monomer concentration, initiator concentration and ratio, time and temperature on the extent of grafting (G%) and the efficiency of grafting were studied. Homopolymer formation has not been observed under all the investigated conditions. The grafted samples were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystallinity of the used chitosan was reduced by grafting. Dye uptake of the grafted samples towards the different types of dyes (acidic, and basic) was investigated and was found to improve profoundly over the native chitosan with a higher uptake for the acidic dye.

Elsawy, M. A., G. R. Saad, and M. Z. Elsabee, "Grafting of N-isopropyl Acrylamide onto Bacterial Polyhydroxybutrate /Hydroxyvalerate Copolymers", Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 2011. Abstract

This work deals with the grafting of N-isopropyl acrylamide (IPA) onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate), (PHBV) (5.4 mole % 3-hydroxyvalerate), using benzoyl peroxide as free radical initiators. The effect of N-isopropyl acrylamide and initiator concentrations and reaction time on the degree of grafting has been investigated. The maximum degree of grafting was 82%. The grafted products were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR, DSC, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and TGA analysis. The DSC results showed that the cold crystallization temperature from the glassy state increased with increasing the extent of grafting, while the Tg and Tm are not affected significantly. TGA analysis revealed that grafting of the host PHBV polymer did not affect much its onset decomposition temperature. The Grafted products swell in aqueous solution and the swelling is controlled by the extent of grafting, temperature, and pH. The biodegradability of PHBV and its graft copolymers solutioncast films was investigated in active soil. The results indicated that the introduction of the hydrophilic PVP and PIPA graft chains enhanced the biodegradability of PHBV.