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Al-Akraa, I. M., A. M. Mohammad, M. S. El-Deab, and B. E. El-Anadouli, "Electrooxidation of Formic Acid at Platinum-Gold Nanoparticle-modified Electrodes", Chemistry letters, 2011. Abstract

The electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid (FA) at PtAu nanoparticle (NP)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode has been investigated. The catalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of FA was greatly influenced by the method of the electrode preparation. The highest catalytic activity was obtained on Pt/Au/NH2/GC electrode in which the GC electrode was chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) anard Ptnanopticles (PtNPs) were next electrochemically deposited on top of AuNPs.

Darwish, E. S., M. A. Abdelrahman, and A. M. Salaheldin, "Enamines in Heterocyclic Synthesis: A Novel Simple and Efficient Route to Condensed Pyridazines", Z. Naturforsch, 2011. Abstract

An efficient and easy preparation of enamine derivatives, via active methyl and methylene compounds by in situ-generated 1-(diethoxymethyl)piperidine, produced from the mixture of triethyl orthoformate/piperidine/DMF, are described. Some new pyridazinone derivatives have been synthesized from the reaction of enamines with hydrazine hydrate and cyanoacid hydrazide.

Riyadh, S. M., "Enaminones as Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Substituted Pyrazoles with Antitumor and Antimicrobial Activities", Molecules, 2011. Abstract

Novel N-arylpyrazole-containing enaminones 2a,b were synthesized as key intermediates. Reactions of 2a,b with active methylene compounds in acetic acid in the presence of ammonium acetate afforded substituted pyridine derivatives 5a-d. Enaminones 2a,b also reacted with aliphatic amines such as hydrazine hydrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give bipyrazoles 8a,b and pyrazolylisoxazoles 9a,b, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of 2a,b with a heterocyclic amine and its diazonium salt yielded the respective [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a] pyrimidines 12a,b and pyrazolylcarbonyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-c] [1,2,4] triazines 14a,b. Moreover, 2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (17) was prepared via reaction of enaminone 2a with aminothiouracil (15). Cyclocondensation of 17 with the appropriate hydrazonoyl chlorides 18a-c gave the corresponding pyrido[2,3-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ones 21a-c. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 2b, 14a and 17 against human breast cell line (MCF-7) and liver carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) were screened and in both lines they showed inhibition effects comparable to those of 5-fluorouracil, used as a standard. The antimicrobial activity of some products chosen as representative examples was also evaluated.

W.O.Younis, and S.H.Allam, "Energy levels, Oscillator Strengths and Transition Probabilities for fine-Structure Transitions in Ar VI, K VII, and Ca VIII", International Review of Physics, 2011. Abstract

Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and transitions probabilities for transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the 1s22s22p63s2np (2P), 1s22s22p63s2nd (2D) (n= 3-5) and 1s22s22p63s2ns (2S), 1s22s22p63s2nf (2F) (n= 4, 5) configurations of the Al-like ions Ar VI, K VII, and Ca VIII have been calculated. The calculations are based upon the general configuration interaction code CIV3 of Hibbert. Calculated values are compared with experimental and other theoretical results where some unpublished energy values and oscillator strengths are reported.

Alishahi, A., A. Mirvaghefi, M. R. Tehrani, H. Farahmand, S. A. Shojaosadati, F. A. Dorkoosh, and M. Z. Elsabee, "Enhancement and Characterization of Chitosan Extraction from the Wastes of Shrimp Packaging Plants", J Polymer and Environment, 2011. Abstract

Chitin is the second most abundant carbohydrate polymer in nature next to cellulose. The main source of chitin is crustacean shells. Chitosan, derived from chitin by alkaline deacetylation, characteristically plays an important role in applications. Several parameters determine the chitosan specifications, namely, chitosan sources, incubation time, pretreatment conditions, temperature and acid and alkaline treatment. Chitosan extraction has been achieved by microwave heating and compared with that of conducting the deacetylation in an autoclave. High molecular weight chitosan (as determined by viscosity measurements of chitosan in dilute acetic acid solution), white color

Geweely, N. S., and S. A. Ouf, "Enhancement of Fungal Degradation of Starch Based Plastic Polymer by Laser-Induced Plasma", African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2011. Abstract

Fourteen fungal species (Alternariaalternata, Aspergillus-candidus, Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus-ochrochus, Botrytis cinerea, Chaetomiumglobosum, Fusar-iummoniliforme, Fusariumoxysporum, Fusariumsolani, Penicilliumchrysogenum, Penicilliumfuniculosm, Penicill-iumitalicum and Phanerochaetechrysosporium) belonging to Ascomycete, Basidiomycete and Deuteromycete groups were isolated from composted soil in Egypt. The ability of laser induced plasma as a new technique to enhance fungal degradation efficiency of starch based plastic polymer was tested. The maximum significant plastic degradation activities for all isolated fungal species were showed after the lowest exposure time (5 min) to laser induced plasma. The highest efficient fungal degraded starch based plastic polymer was A. niger, where the initial appearance of clear zone was recorded only after two days accompanied with the highest significant amylotic activities. The evaluation of changes in starch based plastic polymer degraded by A. niger compared with uninoculated and non plasma treated A. niger degraded starch based plastic polymer was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The maximum degradation efficiency accompanied with the highest loss of tensile strength (90 and 80.7%, respectively) was observed in the plasma treated A. niger degrading starch polymer. Four low molecular weight sugars were detected by HPLC in plasmaand non plasma treated A. niger degrading plastic polymer.

Shanab, S. M. M., E. A. Shalaby, and E. A. El-Fayoumy, "Enteromorpha Compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity", Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract
Shanab, S. M. M., E. A. Shalaby, and E. A. El-Fayoumy, "Enteromorpha Compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity", Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (Ascorbate oxidase and catalase). The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract) then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and ?-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods). The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80%) compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%).However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated from the promising ethyl acetate fraction.

Kashouty, M. E., E. E. Sayed, A. M. T. Elewa, and M. Morsi, "Environmental impact of Anthropogenic Activity on Surface and Groundwater Systems in the Western Part of the River Nile, between EL-Edwa- Der Mawas Area, El Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt", Journal of American Science, 2011. Abstract

The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on the surface and ground-waters systems in the western part of the River Nile, Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. The situation is further complicated by contamination with lithogenic and anthropogenic (agricultural and sewage wastewaters) sources and low plan exploitation techniques. The Pleistocene aquifer is composed of sand and gravel of different sizes, with some clay intercalation. The semi confined condition was around the River Nile shifted to unconfined outside the floodplain. The groundwater flow generally from south to north and diverts towards the western part and the River Nile. Ninety-six and twenty-one water samples were collected from Pleistocene aquifer and surface irrigated waters (Ibrahimia canal, River Nile, and Bahr Youssef) and El Moheet drain. The detail chemical analyses with respect to major and trace elements were accomplished for hydrogeochemical evaluation. The total dissolve solids (TDS) of the surface irrigated water are below 500 ppm which is suitable for drinking and irrigating uses. The As and Ni content of surface water makes it unsuitable for drinking but suitable for irrigation. The River Nile in the study area with respect to the Cd content is inappropriate for drinking and irrigation purposes due to the agricultural activity and inflow from the groundwater (the River Nile is a discharge zone). The Pb and Se concentrations in surface irrigated water are higher than the drinking standards and lower than the irrigation standards The Zn and F concentrations in surface irrigated water are lower than the drinking and irrigation standards. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is more or less equal in surface irrigated water and decline in El Moheet drain by increase in organic wastewaters (BOD and COD) in the drain. The COD and BOD in surface irrigated water are higher than the drinking standards. The B and Cu concentrations in surface irrigated water are lower than drinking and irrigation standards. The TDS concentration in groundwater increases generally from southern to northern part of the study area, with groundwater flow. The TDS anomalous areas (800 to 1400 ppm) are attributed to lithogenic, and anthropogenic (agricultural) impact. The B concentration anomalous areas are located due to the western zone that exceed the drinking water standard. The contamination with respect to Cu and Ni is out the aquifer system. The Cd concentration was below the drinking water standard of 0.003 mg/l, therefore no pollution with respect to Cd concentration.

Helal, N. H., and W. A. Badawy, "Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy in chloride free neutral solutions by amino acids", Electrochim. Acta, 2011. Abstract

The corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy was investigated in stagnant naturally aerated chloride free neutral solutions using amino acids as environmentally safe corrosion inhibitors. The corrosion rate was calculated in absence and presence of the corrosion inhibitor using the polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental impedance data were fitted to theoretical data according to a proposed electronic circuit model to explain the behavior of the alloy/electrolyte interface under different conditions. The corrosion inhibition process was found to depend on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface. Phenyl alanine has shown remarkably high corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 93% at a concentration of 2x10-3 mol dm-3. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to depend on the concentration of the amino acid and its structure. The mechanism of the corrosion inhibition process was discussed and different adsorption isotherms were investigated. The free energy of the adsorption process was calculated for the adsorption of different amino acids on the Mg-Al-Zn alloy and the obtained values reveal a physical adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the alloy surface.

Tallima, H., M. F. Al-Halbosiy, and R. E. Ridi, "Enzymatic Activity and Immunolocalization of Schistosoma Mansoni and Schistosoma Haematobium Neutral Sphingomyelinase", Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 2011. Abstract

Identified in a recent S. mansoni genome sequencing and analysis study, our report is the first to measure nSMase enzymatic activity in Triton X-100-solubilized surface membrane (Sup 1) and whole worm soluble (SWAP) molecules of male and female Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. Neutral, but no acidic, sphingomyelinase activity was readily detectable by the Amplex Red Sphingomyelinase Assay, and increased with incubation time and protein amount. Like nSMase family members, the schistosome nSMase activity was significantly (P < 0.05 - < 0.0001) enhanced by unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidyl serine and significantly (P < 0.01) decreased following exposure to the nSMase specific inhibitor GW4869. Peptides based on the published sequence of S. mansoni putative nSMase and used in a multiple antigen peptide form induced the generation of specific antibodies, which readily bound to the immunogen and to the cognate protein in Sup 1 and SWAP. Immunofluorescence studies suggested the parasite nSMase is located in the worm tegument and gut lining. Studies using RNA interference are in progress to define nSMase role in larval and adult worm surface membrane antigen exposure and unsaturated fatty acid-mediated attrition.

Kuchai, J. A., M. Z. Chishti, M. M. Zaki, J. Ahmad, M. Rasool, S. A. Dar, and H. Tak, "Epidemiology Of Helminth Parasites In Small Ruminants Of Ladakh, India", Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 2011. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and various risk factors associated with helminth parasitism in small ruminants of Ladakh (India) during 2007-2008. A total of 581 small ruminants including 313 sheep and 268 goats were considered during the study. The gastrointestinal tracts including heart and lungs of the host animals were collected from different slaughtered houses and were subjected for the presence of larvae and adult helminth parasites using standard parasitological methods (Boomker et al, 1968). The study reveals overall prevalence as (69.70%) with (68.37%) and (71.26%) in sheep and goats respectively. A significant difference was observed in prevalence of helminth parasites with respect to season, wherein higher prevalence (76.50%) was observed during the wet season as compared to dry season 58.13%. Similarly an association was observed between sex and age of the host with prevalence of helminth infections. Females and young animals of either of the host species were more infected than their counter partners. Likewise an association was observed between prevalence and agro-ecology of the study area where in higher values (76.50%) were recorded for comparatively lowland (Kargil) areas as compared to highland (Leh) areas (58.13%). Hence, it was concluded that species of the animal, season, sex, age, and agro-ecology are important risk factors associated with helminth parasitism in this area.

Khalafalla, M. M., H. M. Daffalla, E. Abdellatef, E. AGABNA, and H. A. EL-SHEMY, "Establishment of an in Vitro Micropropagation Protocol for Boscia Senegalensis (Pers", Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology), 2011.
Dakrory, A. I., and A. E. - D. Shamakh, "The Ethmoidal Ganglion and its Anatomical Relations in Lacertilia (Squamata: Reptilia)", Journal of American Science, 2011. Abstract

The ethmoidal ganglion of three lizards belonging to three different families is described. Suchganglion is represented by one part in both Uromastyx aegypteus (Family: Agamidae) and Varanus griseus griseus (Family: Varanidae) and by two parts in Sphenops sepsoides (Family: Lacertidae).

Farghaly, T. A., and S. M. Gomha, "Ethyl (1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-yl)acetate", Molbank, 2011. Abstract

Novel ethyl (1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-yl)acetate (5), was prepared via heating of 5-amino-1,3-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-4-imino-1Hpyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine (1) and diethyl malonate (2) under reflux. The structure of the synthesized compound was assigned on the basis of its elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data.

Mohareb, R. M., G. A. Elmegeed, A. R. Baiuomy, and E. E. M. F. G. William, "Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive, andAnti-ulcerogenic Activities of Novel Synthesized Thiazolyland Pyrrolyl Steroids", Archive der Pharmazie, 2011. Abstract

Developing new therapeutic agents that can overcome gastrointestinal injury and at the same timecould lead to an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect becomes an urgent need for inflammation patients.Thiazolyl and pyrrolyl steroids were synthesized via straight forward and efficient methods andtheir structures were established based on their correct elemental analysis and compatible IR,1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. The dihydrothiazolyl-hydrazonoprogesterone 12 andthe aminopyrrolylprogesterone 16a showed anti-inflammatory,

El-Ghany, W. A. A., "Evaluation of AutogenousAvibacteriumParagallinarum" Bacterins in Chickens"", International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011. Abstract

In this investigation, a trial for preparation and evaluation of locally prepared (autogenous) bacterinagainst the infection with Avibacteriumparagallinarum (Avi. paragallinarum) causing infectious coryzadisease in layer chickens was done. Two types of adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide and mineral oil based) werecompared. At 6 weeks of age, one hundred layer chickens were divided into equally distributed 4 groupseach containing 25 birds.

G.S., E. B., E. Baz, F.K., A. - E. I., A. El-Baky, H. Hanaa, A. M.M., and I. E. A., "Evaluation of Glycolipids of some Egyptian Marine Algae as A Source of Bioactive Substances", Inte Research J. Pharmacy, 2011. Abstract

Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta Laurencia popillose Galaxoura cylindriea) ; and one species Ulva fasciata and two species of Phaeophyta Dilophys fasciola Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL) (as % of total lipid) were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7%) followed by L. popillose(22.5 %).

Abdel-Moein, N. M., E. A. Abdel-Moniem, D. A. Mohamed, and E. A. Hanfy, "Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Effects of some Plant Extracts", Grasas Y. Aceites, 2011. Abstract
Hasheesh, W. S., M. - A. S. Marie, H. H. Abbas, M. G. Eshak, and E. A. Zahran, "An Evaluation of the Effect of 17?-Methyltestosterone Hormone on some Biochemical, Molecular and Histological Changes in the Liver of Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus", Life Science Journal, 2011. Abstract

The present field investigation was designed to explain clearly why methyltestosterone is widely used by the producers of farmed tilapia. Also to demonstrate why there are no known risks to consumers, producers and on the environment from using this hormone provided the recommended best practices for methyltestosterone used in aquaculture of fish. In this study, all water quality parameters were within the acceptable range for fish growth. The present analyses showed no significant differences in plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, AST, ALT, LDH, it showed highly significant differences in plasma CPK activities.

Helal, M. A., and A. R. Seadawy, "Exact soliton solutions of a D-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with damping and diffusive terms", Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und Physik ZAMP, 2011.
Othman, S. H., M. M. Saleh, M. Shaban, M. Demerdash, and B. E. El-Anadouli, "Experimental Validation for a Mathematical Model Describing Beryllium Retention on Flow-Through Fixed Bed Reactor of Amb-IR-120", Hydrometallurgy, 2011. Abstract

A mathematical model has been reviewed and used to simulate retention of beryllium ions on flow-through fixed bed reactor of Amb-IR-120. The interlinked effects of structural parameters, kinetics, hydrodynamic and operating conditions have been incorporated in the mathematical model.