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Awaad, M. H. H., M. E. Hatem, W. A. A. El-Ghany, A. El-Sawy, and A. Fathi., "Certain Epidemiological Aspects of AeromonasHydrophila Infection in Chickens", Journal of American Science, vol. 7, issue 4, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Aeromonashydrophila (A. hydrophila) is one of enteric poultry pathogens of public health importance.This work was designed to investigate certain epidemiological aspects of A. hydrophilaincluding its viability, cycleof infection and its pathogenicity to chicks. A gentamicin resistant A. hydrophila strain (GR A. hydrophila strain)was prepared. The results showed that GR A. hydrophila survived in water for 26 days at room temperature and alsoit could be persist in chicken crates, feces, ration, saw dust and straw for 11, 9, 23, 22 and 17 days, respectively. GRA. hydrophila could induce 8.3% embryonic mortality after dipping of the eggs in infected broth culture. Hatchedchicks from GR A. hydrophila infected eggs showed mortalities reaching 13.3 and 1.7 % during 1st and 2nd weekpost hatching, respectively. Survived infected chicks exhibited signs and lesions of omphalitis, enteritis andsepticaemia and depression in heir weight gain. The rate of GR A. hydrophila re-isolation from dead embryosreached 100%, while it was 95.6, 26, 8.7, 4.4, 2.2 and 4.3% from intestine, liver, heart, spleen, kidney and lung,respectively in sacrificed survivors. Fecal shedding of GR A. hydrophila in chicken breeders revealed higherpercentage in orally infected birds than subcutaneously infected ones. Addition of probiotic to the ration of orallyinfected group resulted in lowering the shedding rate. Re-isolation of the organism from egg shells reached 12 % inorally infected breeders compared to 4 % in orally infected probiotic treated birds. Samples taken from reproductiveand internal organs of parent chicken hens were negative for GR A. hydrophila re-isolation. In conclusion; GR A.hydrophila survives for several weeks in contaminated water, ration and litter. The organism may infect birds byoral route and can colonize intestine. GR A. hydrophila is not congenitally transferred as ovary and oviduct do notplay a role in dissemination of A. hydrophila infection. Addition of probiotic to the ration can reduce fecal sheddingrate as well as re-isolation of A. hydrophila from the egg shells.

Ramadan, A., M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, G. Kamel, H. Y. El-Zorba, and N. A. Ezzeldeen, "Characteristics of Nanobacteria in Man and Animals", Nano Science and Nano Tecknology, 2011. Abstract

Nanobacteria are the smallest described bacteria to date, with dimensions of 0.08 to 0.50 ?m. Furthermore, these organisms were found to produce a biofilm containing hydroxyl apatite or carbonate, preventing their effective staining. They were also isolated from commercial serum used in the cell culture. Nanobacteria have been detected thereafter in blood and blood products derived from horses, as well as blood from human blood donors. Some strains were isolated from kidney stones and bovine sera. To confirm the data, we searched for Nanobacteria from aseptically removed urinary tract stoned. We used scanning electron microscopy for these stones. Our objectives are identification and determination of Nanobacteria by cell co culture and apatite formation by Nanobacteria in Loeffler medium and SF medium. Also production of polyclonal antibodies, immune-fluorescence assays. Moreover, identification using molecular characterization of Nanobacteria by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene of selected isolates and cloning for PCR amplified products. Microbiological characteristics:We have reviewed recent publications regarding the microbiological characteristic and pathogenicity of a novel infectious agent, the mineral-forming , sterile-filterable, slow-growing Gram-negative Nanobacteria, detected in bovine/human blood, kidney cyst fluid, urine and kidney stones. According to their 16S rDNA structure, nanobacteria belong to the alpha-2 Proteobacteria, subgroup, which includes the Brucella and Bartonella species. Their cell diameter is 0.2-0.5 microm (the smallest known cell-walled bacteria). Their most remarkable characteristic is the formation of carbonate apatite crystals of neutral pH and at physiologic phosphate and calcium concentrations. The extracellular mineralization forms a hard protective shelter for these hardy microorganisms, and enables them to survive conditions of physical stress that would be lethal to most other bacterial species.

Mansour, A. M. A. S. F., and M. A. Abdo, "Characterization and dramatic variations of the magnetic propertiesof Cu-doped nanometric Co ferrite", Phys. Scr., 2011. Abstract

The structure and magnetic properties of Co1?XCuXFe2O4 were investigated. Cobalt copper ferrites have been synthesized by the double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of single-phase cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The particle size was estimated by TEM micrography to be 46, 51, 40 and 36 nm for X = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6, respectively, which is a good result for this method of preparation. The magnetic susceptibility was studied at different temperatures as a function of magnetic field intensities. The room temperature hysteresis loop was found for the present samples in a field intensity of 7 kOe using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The parameters of x-ray density (dx) and apparent density (da) increase with increasing Cu2+ concentration in the prepared samples.

Atta, N. F., A. Galal, F. M. Abu-Attia, and S. M. Azab, "Characterization and electrochemical investigations of micellar/drug interactions", Electrochim. Acta, vol. 56, pp. 2510-2517, 2011. CU-PDF.pdf
Mogoda, A. S., Y. H. Ahmad, and W. A. Badawy, "Characterization of stain etched p-type silicon in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO3 or KMnO4", Materials Chem.and Phys., vol. 126, issue 3, pp. 676-684, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Stain etching of p-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid solutions containing nitric acid or potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent has been examined. The effects of etching time, oxidizing agent and HF concentrations on the electrochemical behavior of etched silicon surfaces have been investigated byelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An electrical equivalent circuit was used for fitting the impedance data. The morphology and the chemical composition of the etched Si surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques, respectively.

Issa, Y. M., E. A. L. Ansary, O. E. Sherif, and H. B. Hassib, "Charge–transfer Complexes of Pyrimidine Schiff Bases with Aromatic Nitro Compounds", Spectrochimica Acta, vol. 79, issue 3, pp. 513-521, 2011. CU-PDF.pdf
Doha, E. H., A. H. Bhrawy, and E. S. S. Eldien, "A Chebyshev Spectral Method Based on Operational Matrix for Initial and Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order", Computers and Mathematics with Applications, vol. 62, pp. 2364-2373, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

We are concerned with linear and nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations (FDEs). The shifted Chebyshev operational matrix (COM) of fractional derivatives is derivedand used together with spectral methods for solving FDEs. Our approach was based on theshifted Chebyshev tau and collocation methods.

Hassan, H. M. M., "Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Palm Pollen Grains", Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 1-7, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine the chemical composition and nutritional value of palm pollen grains. The proximate chemical composition, vitamin, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid contents of palm pollen grains were analyzed. The results obtained showed that the values of the proximate chemical composition of palm pollen grains were moisture (28.80%), ash (4.57%), crude fiber (1.37%), crude fat (20.74%), crude protein (31.11%) and carbohydrate (13.41%). Palm pollen grains contained a logical amount of vitamins A, E and C. They are a good source of minerals such as B, Zn, Se, Fe, Mo, Cu, Mn, Co and Ni. Leucine and lysine (3.34 and 2.95 g/100 g dry weight, respectively) were the major essential amino acid constituents. The predominant fatty acids of palm pollen grains were palmitic (C16:0), linoleic (C18:2) and myristic (C14:0) acids. In conclusion, palm pollen grains are a good economic nutritional source can be used as human food supplements.

Atta, N. F., A. Galal, and M. F. El-Kady, "Chemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Conducting Polymer Thin Films inPolymer Films: Properties, Performance and Applications", Nova Science Publishers, 2011. Abstract

Conducting polymers (CPs) are organic polymers that exhibit electronic, magnetic and optical properties of metals and semiconductors while retaining the attractive mechanical properties and processing advantages of polymers. These features, along with chemical sensitivity, room temperature operation, and tunable charge transport properties, have launched conducting polymers as a major class of chemical transducers, creating powerful thin/thick film sensors for over two decades. Additionally, their synthetic routes are compatible with several functionalization schemes, including covalent bonding to the monomer, entrapment during synthesis, and surface chemistry, which can impart a high degree of selectivity. CPs can be used as the selective layer in sensors (sensor receptor) or as the transducer itself. Physical transducers varying from optical, mass sensitive and electrochemical are all discussed in this chapter. In comparison with most of the commercially available sensors, based usually on metal oxides and operated at high temperatures, the sensors made of CPs have many improved characteristics. They have high sensitivities and short response time and more interestingly they work at room temperature. As a result, more and more attentions have been paid to the sensors fabricated from CPs.

Sabaa, M. W., N. A. Mohamed, R. R. Mohamed, and S. A. E. M. Latif, "Chemically Induced Graft Copolymerization of 4-Vinyl Pyridine Onto Carboxymethyl Chitosan", Polymer Bulletin Journal, vol. 67, issue 4, pp. 693-707, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

A novel super absorbent polymer was prepared by graft copolymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) onto the chain of carboxymethyl chitosan in aqueous solution using potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The effect of monomer and initiator concentration,

Ghozlan, S. A. S., A. M. Abdelmoniem, and I. A. Abdelhamid, "Chemistry of Azaenamines", Current Organic Chemistry, 2011. Abstract

Approaches for the preparation of azaenamines as well as the chemical reactivity profiles and structures of these substances are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the use of these substances as C-nucleophiles in the synthesis of five- and six-membered heterocycles and fused derivatives.

Hassaneen, H. M. E., "Chemistry of Enaminone of 1-Acetylnaphthalene using chitosan as green catalyst under microwave irradiation", Molecules. 16(1), 2011. Abstract

Enaminone 1 was reacted with hydrazonoyl halides 2a-d to yield 3,4-disubstituted pyrazoles 6a-d and coupling with arenediazonium chlorides to afford the 2-(arylhydrazono)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-3-oxopropionaldehydes 13a-c. Compounds 13 could be utilized for synthesis of variety of arylpyrazoles, arylazolopyrimidines, and pyridazinones via reaction with hydrazines, aminoazoles, and active methylene derivatives, respectively. The foregoing reactions were carried out with chitosan as basic ecofriendly catalyst under conventional heating as well as pressurized microwave irradiation and a comparative study was employed.

Mesallamy, H. E. O., N. S. Metwally, M. S. Soliman, K. A. Ahmed, and M. A. M. Moaty, "The Chemopreventive Effect of Ginkgo Biloba and Silybum Marianum Extracts on Hepatocarcinogenesis In Rats", Cancer Cell International, pp. 11-38, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

This study was designed to evaluate the potential chemopreventive activities of Ginkg biloba extract (EGb) and Silybum marianum extract (silymarin) against hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (ND EA) in rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Group 1 served as normal control rats. Group 2 animals were intragastrically administrated N DEA a t a dose of 10 mg/k g five times a week for 12 weeks to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Groups 3 and 4 animals were pretreated with silymarin and E Gb respectively. Groups 5 and 6 animals were post treated with silymarin and EGb respectively. The investigated parameters in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate a minotrasferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The investigated parameters in liver tissue are malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GS H ), superoxide dismutase ( SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and comet assay parameters.

Alishahi, A., A. Mirvaghefi, M. R. Tehrani, H. Farahmand, S. Koshio, F. A. Dorkoosh, and M. Z. Elsabee, "Chitosan nanoparticle to Carry Vitamin C Through the Gastrointestinal Tract and Induce the Non-Specific Immunity System of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)", Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 86, issue 1, pp. 142-146, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Chitosan is a polysaccharide that has gained interest in recent to encapsulate active compounds due to its non-toxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility and immunity system induction. The chitosan nanoparticles was prepared by adding vitamin C to tripolyphosphate (TPP) solution and then blending it stepwise to the chitosan solution under stirring. Nanoparticle characterizations were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zetasizer. The release profile of vitamin C into the gastrointestinal and serum of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was portrayed and its effect on the immunity system of the fish was determined as well. The results showed that the chitosan nanoparticle had spherical shape; positive charge with particle size of 185 nm and in vivo controlled release until 48 h. Lysozyme and complement contents in the fish serum increased as long as they were provoked by the nanoparticle. This nanoparticles is a promising technique to boost immunity system of fish.

Osman, K. M., H. A. Ali, J. A. ElJakee, and H. M. Galal, "Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila Pecorum Infections in Goats and Sheep", Scientific and Technical Review, vol. 30, issue 3, pp. 393-348, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of chlamydiosis in free ranging asymptomatic and diarrhoeic sheep and goats. Fecal swabs were examined for the presence of chlamydiae by culture in Vero cells, chick embryo, Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining and immunoperoxidase. Chlamydial DNA was then used to identify specific DNA by omp2 gene using the PCR-RFLP. The asymptomatic goats were 50% positive for the presence of the omp2 gene of the family Chlamydiaceae which were totally Cp. psittaci (100%). The percentage of the family Chlamydiaceae in diseased goats was 16.2% which were also identified to be positive for Cp. psittaci (100%). The asymptomatic sheep revealed that 6.7% were positive for the presence of the omp2 gene of the family Chlamydiaceae and to be 100% positive for Cp. psittaci. On the other hand, 42.9% of the samples that were collected from the diseased sheep were positive for the family Chlamydiaceae of which 25.7% were Cp. psittaci and 4.8% Cp. pecorum.

Abdou, H. S., S. H. Salah, A. A. E. Raouf, and A. - R. E.A., "Chromosomal Aberrations and Nucleic Acids Systems Affected By some Egyptian Medicinal Plants Used in Treating Female Pregnant Diabetic Rats", American J. of Molecular Biology, vol. 1, pp. 26-32, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

The influences of medicinal plants Juniperus Phoenicea (Araar), Hyphaene thebaica (Doum), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kafta) and Cleome droserifolia (Sammo) as antidiabetic agents were investigated using female pregnant albino rats. Female rats were injected with 60 mg/kg b.w. alloxan to induce diabetes. Diabetic rats treated orally with the methanol extracts of tested plants till the 19 day of gestation.

Hady, A. A., "Climate Change: Global, Regional and National Dimensions", Environmental Security Springer, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Alcott, C. J., B. A. Sponseller, D. M. Wong, J. L. Davis, A. M. Soliman, C. Wang, and W. Hsu, "Clinical and Immunomodulating Effects of Ketamine in Horses with Experimental Endotoxemia", Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 25, issue 4, pp. 934-43, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Background: Ketamine has immunomodulating effects both in vitro and in vivo during experimental endotoxemia in humans, rodents, and dogs.

Mohamed, M. S., W. A. El-Soud, and M. F. Mohamed, "Cloning and Expression of the Recombinant NP24I Protein From Tomato Fruit and Study of its Antimicrobial Activity", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011.
Moussa, T. A. A., "Cloning and Sequencing of Phenol Oxidase 1 (pox1) Gene from Pleurotus Ostreatus", African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, issue 8, pp. 1299-1308, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf


Dakrory, A. I., and T. G. Abdel-Kader, "Comparative Anatomical Study On The Ciliary Ganglion Of Birds", Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 5, issue 12, pp. 37-48, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

This study deals with the ciliary ganglion of three species of birds belonging to three different orders and families. The fully formed embryos are collected from the fertilized eggs in lab. The heads were fixed, embedded in paraffin, then sectioned serially and stained. The ciliary ganglia were examined by the light microscope.

Ibrahim, A. K., I. S. Gamil, A. - E. A. A. baky, M. M. Hussein, and A. A. Tohamy, "Comparative Molecular and Conventional Detection Methods of BabesiaEqui (B", Global Veterinaria, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 201-210, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Theileriaequi is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite and one of the causative agents of equinepiroplasmosis. Blood is collected from a total of 100 horses. Three diagnostic methods: microscopicalexamination, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were comparedin detecting T. equi. The results showed that the prevalence rate of T. equi in examined horses was 18%, 30%and 26% by using microscopic examination, ELISA and PCR, respectively.Clinical, hematological andbiochemical studies were evaluated in examined horses. Significant decrease in hematological parameters wasobserved along with an increase in some biochemical parameters. The results of PCR assay showed itsimportance in the diagnosis of the carrier infected cases more than with the conventional techniques.The microscopic examination was used only in acute cases of the disease.

Abo-EL-Sooud, K., and M. A. Tohamy, "Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Milk Concentrations of Ceftazidime in Healthy and Mastitic Goats", Insight Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 11-17, 2011. CU-PDF.pdf
Abdel-Rahim, E. A., H. S. El-Beltagi, and S. A. S. Fayed, "Comparative Studies on the Influences of Juniperus Phoenicea and Hyphaene Thebaica as Hypoglycemic Factors In Diabetic Rats", Advances in Food Sciences, vol. 33, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

The effects of methanolic extracts of Juniperus phoenicea and Hyphaene thebaica on carbohydrate metabolism of male streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats were studied. Blood glucose, liver glycogen and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) as well as the contents of pyruvate and lactate were determined in brain, liver and kidney tissues of the experimental animals. The ingestion of both methanolic extracts significantly reduced the high level of blood glucose but elevated the liver glycogen content of the diabetic rats. PK activity reached the highest values in liver and kidneys but brain showed the minimal stimulation. HK activity had nearly the same trend as that of PK. In case of LDH, the activity was also stimulated in the examined organs of the treated animals. In addition, pyruvate contents were significantly decreased.

Fouad, D. M., and M. B. Mohamed, "Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion", Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2012, pp. 8, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.