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2011
Badawy, W. A., K. M. Ismail, and S. S. Medany, "Kinetics of Electropolymerization of 1-Amino-9, 10-Anthraquinone", Int. J. Chem. Kinetics, 2011. Abstract

1-amino-9, 10-anthraquinone, AAQ, was electropolymerized on platinum substrates either from aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes. The aqueous electrolyte was 6.0 mol L-1 H2SO4 and the non-aqueous solvent was acetonitrile containing lithium perchlorate, LiClO4, as supporting electrolyte. The formed polyaminoanthraquinone, PAAQ, was stable and the polymerization process was reproducible. The kinetics of the electropolymerization process was investigated by determining the charge consumed during the electropolymerization as a function of time at different concentrations of the electrolyte components. The results of chronoamperometry have been used to determine the orders of reaction. In either aqueous or non-aqueous solution, the electropolymerization process follows first order kinetics with respect to the monomer concentration. In non-aqueous solution, the very small concentrations of water did not affect the order of reaction. The order of reaction with respect to the traces of water and the supporting electrolyte concentration was found to be zero. In aqueous solution the order of the electropolymerization reaction with respect to the concentration of H2SO4 was found to be negative (-0.66) which means that the aqueous electrolyte inhibits the polymerization reaction.

Taher, E. E., N. F. Mahmoud, and M. A. Mahmoud, "Laboratory Evaluation of Some Egyptian Native Plants Versus Some Parasitic Vectors", Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2011. Abstract

Four plant extracts molluscicidal and insecticidal efficacy was evaluated under laboratory conditions versusBiomphalariaalexandrina,Lymneacailliaudi snails; their egg masses and Culexpipiens larvae. These extractsincluded Grape seed, Eucalyptus, Pomegranate, Verbesinaalcoholic extracts, as well as Eucalyptus oil.Different mortalities in the exposed vectors were recorded by the four plant extracts using differentconcentrations and exposure time.

Hawary, D. L., M. A. Motaleb, H. Farag, O. W. Guirguis, and M. Z. Elsabee, "Lactosaminated N Succinyl-chitosan as a Liver-targeted Carrier of 99mTc in Vivo for Nuclear Imaging and Biodistribution", Journal Label. Compd. Radiopharm, 2011.
Elsherbini, A. A. M., M. Saber, M. Aggag, A. El-Shahawy, and H. A. A. Shokier, "Laser and Radiofrequency-induced Hyperthermia Treatment Via Gold-Coated Magnetic Nanocomposites", International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2011. Abstract

Introduction: The current radiofrequency ablation technique requires invasive needle placement. On the other hand, most of the common photothermal therapeutic methods are limited by lack of accuracy of targeting. Gold and magnetic nanoparticles offer the potential to heat tumor tissue selectively at the cellular level by noninvasive interaction with laser and radiofrequency.

Moussa, S., G. Atkinson, S. M. El-Shall, A. Shehata, K. A. M. Zeid, and M. B. Mohamed, "Laser assisted photocatalytic reduction of metal ions by graphene", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011.
Younis, W. O., S. H. Allam, and T. M. E. Sherbin, "Laser Gain for Radiation in Soft X-Ray Spectral Region Produced via Electron Collisional of Fe XVI Ion", International Review of Physics, 2011. Abstract

Electron impact excitations and de-excitation rate coefficients of the excited ion Fe XVI are calculated according to the analytical formulas of Vriens and Smeets. A simple modification has been made by substituting effective quantum numbers in Vriens formulas to be applicable for the ion under consideration. The energy levels and transition probabilities have been calculated using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method with Breit-Pauli relativistic correction (CF.Fischer's ATSP computer package) in which the monopole and the quadrupole transitions have been introduced in the calculations in addition to the dipole transitions. Level population densities are then calculated by solving the coupled rate equations involving the 54 levels 1i2i2p6nl, where n=3-8 and 1=0,1,2,3,4,5. Positive gain coefficients are displayedfor the transitions 5p(2P1/1/2)?4d(2D3/2), 5p(2p3/2) ? 4d(2D32) and 5p(2p3/2) ? 4d(2D5/2) at three selected electron temperatures namely 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 the ionization potential.

Barakat, D. A., G. Flingelli, and C. Reichmuth, "Lethal Effect of Sulfuryl Fluoride on Eggs of Different Age of the Indian Meal Moth Plodia Interpunctella (Hubner) ", Journal Fur Kulturpflanzen, 2011.
Fayed, H. M., M. A. - A. Shazly, and S. Abdel-Monem, "Life cycle of Eimeria Rousetti sp", Journal of American Science, 2011.
Naoum, M. M., A. A. Fahmi, and H. A. Ahmed, "Liquid crystalline Behaviour of Model Compounds Di-Laterally Substituted With Different Polar Groups", Liquid Crystals, 2011. Abstract

Five groups of laterally di-substituted three-ring compounds, 4-(3_-fluoro phenylazo)-2-(or 3-) substituted phenyl-4_-alkoxybenzoates, were prepared and investigated for their mesophase formation and stability. Each group of compounds, which have in common a lateral fluorine atom on the first terminal ring, differs from each other by a second lateral group substituted on the central ring.

Abdelhalim, M. A. K., and M. M. Mady, "Liver Uptake of Gold Nanoparticles after Intraperitoneal Administration in Vivo: A Fluorescence Study", Lipids in Health and Disease, 2011. Abstract

One particularly exciting field of research involves the use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the detection and treatment of cancer cells in the liver. The detection and treatment of cancer is an area in which the light absorption and emission characteristics of GNPs have become useful. Currently, there are no data available regarding the fluorescence spectra or in vivo accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in rat liver after repeated administration. In an attempt to characterise the potential toxicity or hazards of GNPs in therapeutic or diagnostic use, the present study measured fluorescence spectra, bioaccumulation and toxic effects of GNPs at 3 and 7 days following intraperitoneal administration of a 50 ?l/day

Mohammed, H. S., N. M. Radwan, and N. A. Ahmed, "Long-term Low-level Electromagnetic Radiation Causes Changes in the EEG of Freely-moving Rats", Romanian J. Biophys., 2011. Abstract

In the present study the effect of long-term exposure (1 hour/day for 4 months) to electromagnetic radiation field (EMF) (900 MHz, 0.02 mW/cm2, SAR: 1.165 W/kg) on the EEG of freely moving rat is investigated. The spectral analysis of the EEG bands was done after 1, 2 and 4 months of daily EMF irradiation and after 1 month of stopping irradiation that extended daily for 4 months. The quantitative analysis of EEG revealed a clear shift from high frequency (beta) to lower frequency (delta) in irradiated animals as compared to unexposed animals, which indicated the change in the animal arousal. The cumulative effect of non-thermal EMF has been suggested for chronic exposure to radiation. It could be suggested that EMF cause changes in central cholinergic system that change the cortical excitability that reflected in slowing down of the EEG frequencies.

Osman, M., G. I. Mahmoud, R. M. Romeilah, and S. A. Fayed, "Lupin Seeds Lower Plasma Lipid Concentrations and Normalize Antioxidant Parameters in Rats", Grasas y Aceites, 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA) and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as the activities of transaminases )ALT and AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants.

El-Deab, M. S., and T. Ohsaka, "Manganese Oxide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrocatalytic Applications", Advances in Nanotechnology, 2011. Abstract

This chapter describes our recent researches on the fabrication and characterization of electrochemically-prepared metal oxide nanostructures, i.e., manganese oxide, onto various substrates, e.g., glassy carbon (GC), gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their applications as electrocatalys for reactions of relevance to, among others, the polymer electrolyte membrance fuel cell, e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution reactions as well as methanol and formic acid oxidation reactions. This includes the electrodeposition of crystallographically oriented manganese oxide nanorods (in the manganite phase) onto the various substrates. Details of the morphological and the electrochemical characterizations of the thus-fabricated manganese oxide nanorods are outlined. This includes scanning electron microscope imaging (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and XPS data. The excellent reversible redox properties of the thus-prepared manganese oxide nanorods markedly enhanced the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrodes towards water electrolysis as well as formic acid and methanol oxidation reactions.

El-Sherif, R. M., and W. A. Badawy, "Mechanism of Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Tin in Aqueous Solutions Containing Tartaric Acid", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2011. Abstract

The electrochemical behavior of tin metal in tartaric acid solutions of different concentrations was investigated. Some amino acids, namely, alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and histidine were used environmentally safe inhibitors for the tin dissolution process. Different electrochemical techniques including, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used. The metal surface was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The E/I curves showed that the anodic behavior of tin exhibits active/passive transition. The active dissolution of tin was increased by increasing tartaric acid concentration. Glycine was found to give the highest corrosion inhibition efficiency at a concentration of 0.02 mol dm-3 . The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption process was found obey the Freundlich isotherm, and the adsorption of glycine on Sn has an adsorption free energy of 10.2 kJ/mol which reveals physical adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface. The experimental impedance data are in good agreement with the polarization experiments. An equivalent circuit model was proposed for fitting of the experimental impedance data, and to simulate the electrode/electrolyte interface.

Al-Raawi, D., H. Abu-El-Zahab, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "Membrane type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Correlates with the Expression and Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in Inflammatory Breast Cancer", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2011. Abstract

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) represents the most aggressive form of breast cancer, characterized by rapid progression, involvement of dermal lymphatic emboli and extensive metastatic lymph nodes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Although the role of MMPs in non-IBC is well studied, little is known about its role in IBC. Thus the goal of the present study was to 1) investigate the expression and activity levels of membrane type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in IBC versus non-IBC tissue samples and; 2) test correlation between expression of MT1-MMP and pro- and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9. We enrolled 51 breast cancer patients, 21 were diagnosed as IBC and 30 as non-IBC. Level of expression of MT1-MMP in carcinoma tissue was assessed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry techniques. The expression and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was measured by gelatin zymography. Our results revealed that MT1-MMP, pro-MMP-2, pro-MMP-9 and active MMP-2 were more expressed in IBC tissue versus non-IBC. Furthermore, we found that MT1-MMP expression correlates with expression of pro-MMP-2, pro-MMP-9 and active MMP-2 in IBC tissue samples and with MMP-9 in non-IBC tissue sample. In conclusion, our study suggests a role of MT1-MMP in inflammatory breast cancer disease progression.

Kudugunti, S. K., H. Thorsheim, M. S. Yousef, L. Guan, and M. Y. Moridani, "The Metabolic Bioactivation of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Mediated by Tyrosinase Selectively Inhibits Glutathione S-Transferase", Journal Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2011.
El-Sherif, R. M., S. A. Khalil, and W. A. Badawy, "Metal", J. Alloys and Compounds, 2011. Abstract

Etching of silicon and formation of definite porous surfaces can be carried out by different methods. Metal-assisted etching represents a convenient method for the application of induced etching for beneficial applications. Porous silicon layers (PSL) on Si are useful and important in solar energy conversion and optoelectronics. Porous silicon on silicon increases the effective area and thus higher optical absorption as well as solar conversion efficiency can be achieved.

Emaraa, A. A. A., M. A. Tawabb, M. A. El-ghamrya, and M. Z. Elsabeeb, "Metal Uptake by Chitosan Derivatives and Structure Studies of the Polymer Metal Complexes", Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011. Abstract

Two modified chitosan polymers were obtained by reaction of chitosan with cinnamoyl chloride and cinnamoyl isothiocyanate to produce two new derivatives. The new modified polymers were characterized by elemental and spectral analysis to confirm their structures.

El-halim, H. A. F., N. F. A. El-Dien, G. G. Mohamed, and N. A. Mohmed, "Metalloantibiotics: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Clotrimazole Metal Chelates, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization", Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, 2011. Abstract

{Metal complexes of clotrimazole (CLMZ) drug were prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, magnetic moment, molar conductance, and thermal analyses techniques.The complexes have the general formulae [MCl2(H2O)2(L)2].yH2O (where M = Mn(II), Cu(II)), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)

El-Baky, A., H. Hanaa, and E. B. G.S., "Microalgae as a Source of Biofuel", Advances in Energy Research, 2011. Abstract

Nowadays, the use of fossil fuels as energy is caused global warming by increases of greenhouse effect gases concentrations in the atmosphere. Therefore renewable clean energy is required for replacing fossil fuel with biomass to reduce the CO2 emission. The developed of renewable energy is constantly increasing as alternative source of fossil fuel. A strategy to develop high performing micro-organisms has to consider the product of desire. Microalgae biomasses appear to be the most promising source for production and applications of interest renewable energy. With development in genetic and metabolic processing, microalgae can meet the high demands of bio-energy. This review is discusses the production of bioenergy from microalgae.

Haggag, M., M. I. Ali, M. Eweis, and B. Hassanein, "Microflora Isolated from Preoperative Conjunctivas, the Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and their Antibiotic Profile", Journal of American Science, 2011. Abstract

The existence of bacterial flora in apparently healthy conjunctiva has been reported in several studies. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) have been isolated from clinically healthy conjunctivas. Chloramphenicol eye drops are useful for the treatment of MRSA ocular surface infection. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA and MRCNS isolates. Also to assess the in vitro susceptibility of the conjunctival bacterial

Haggag, M., M. I. Ali, M. Eweis, and B. Hassanein, "Microflora Isolated from Preoperative Conjunctivas, the Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and their Antibiotic Profile", Journal of American Science, 2011. Abstract

The existence of bacterial flora in apparently healthy conjunctiva has been reported in several studies. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) have been isolated from clinically healthy conjunctivas. Chloramphenicol eye drops are useful for the treatment of MRSA ocular surface infection. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA and MRCNS isolates. Also to assess the in vitro susceptibility of the conjunctival bacterial