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Sayed, M. M. A. A., and A. M. Soliman, "Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Cichorium Endivia L", Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The current study was carried out to elucidate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cichorium endivia L.leaves (HCE) against acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Oral administration of acetaminophen produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant increase in liver MDA and serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin and enzyme activities (AST, ALT and ALP). While a significant decrease in the levels of liver GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, serum total protein and albumin was recorded. Pre-treatment of rats with C.endivia leaves extract or silymarin for 21 days succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from acetaminophen as indicated by the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. These results substantiate the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of C.endivia leaves extract. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of HCE was found to be compatible with silymarin as a known hepatoprotective drug.

Aboul-Soud, M. A. M., A. M. Al-Othman, G. E. El-Desoky, Z. A. Al-Othman, K. Yusuf, J. Ahmad, and A. A. Al-Khedhairy, "Hepatoprotective Effects of Vitamin E/Selenium Against Malathion-Induced Injuries on the Antioxidant Status Andapoptosis-Related Gene Expression in Rats", Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The present study is undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E(?-tocopherol) and selenium (Se) against malathion (MTN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuriesin experimental rats. Male rats were randomly divided into eight groups comprised of 10 rats each. The1st group served as a negative control (CN), whereas the 2nd was supplemented with a combination of?-tocopherol (100 mg kg-1 body weight, b.w.)/Se (0.1 mg kg-1 bw). The 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were respectivelyadministered with increasing doses of MTN equivalent to 1/50 LD50 (M1/50), 1/25 LD50 (M1/25) and 1/10LD50 (M1/10), respectively. The 6th, 7th and 8th groups were administered the same doses of MTN as in the3rd, 4th and 5th groups with a concomitant supplementation with ?-tocopherol/Se. Subchronic exposure ofrats to MTN for 45 days resulted in statistical dose-dependent decrease in acetylcholinestrase (AChE)activity, increase in oxidative stress marker lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in reduced glutathione(GSH) level. Moreover, the levels of glutathione persoxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) andcatalase (CAT) were significantly decline in response to MTN exposure in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore,histopathological studies of liver in the rats which received MTN exhibited, moderate to severedegenerative and necrotic changes in the hepatocytes. Notably, the administration of ?-tocopherol/Se protectedthe liver of rats exposed to MTN as evidenced by the appearance of normal histological structures,significant attenuation of the decline in all antioxidant enzymes tested (i.e. GPx, SOD and CAT), significantrecovery in the GSH level and statistical reduction in LPO, as compared to the experimental rat.

Ramadan, A., M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and A. Azooz, "Herbal remedies of Nanobacteria", Nano Science and Nano Tecknology, 2011. Abstract

Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of nanobacterial opportunistic infections. The kidney is the main part of the urinary tract. Drinking too much or too little water, administration of antibiotics as well as excess consumption of calcium or oxalic acid causes awakening of the kidneys resulting in renal disorders. When the kidneys are not filtering the blood properly, toxins accumulate causing lower sciatic pain, kidney stones, bladder stones, painful or difficult urination, and urinary tract infection. These types of disorders in the renal system can be treated with Ayurveda, an indigenous system of medicine in India. In Ayurveda, single plant or combinations of different plants are used in the treatment (Rajurkar and Damame 1998). Nanobacteria appear as self-propagating calcifying macromolecular complexes found in bovine and human blood and blood products. Nanobacteria were found to be present in fetal bovine serum and cultured cell lines, to arouse immune response and to infect humans, and were published as an infectious cause for pathological calcification (Kajander and Ciftcioglu 1998). These are very small, Gram negative bacteria. They belong to the Proteobacteria group and are about 1/20 the size of most of their larger cousins in this group. They may play a pathogenic role in kidney stones and atherosclerosis. These bacteria are unique by developing a needle-shaped calcium apatite cell wall, forming an enclosure around the organism. This review of literature elucidates previous and current status of herbal remedies in treating nanobacteria.

Saleh, H. M., A. S. Shaker, A. M. Saafan, and A. K. H. Ibrahim, "Herpes Virus Reactivation by Low-Intensity Diode and Co2 Lasers", Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 2011. Abstract

Background:The herpes virus enters into latency after symptomatic or asymptomatic herpetic infection. During latency, the virus has no impact on infected cells. However, internal or external stimuli, including certain lasers, can induce virus reactivation.

Abdelrazek, F. M., A. A. Fadda, and S. S. Mohamed, "Heterosynthesis using nitriles: Novel pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines", Internat. J. Org. Chem., 2011. Abstract

2-Amino-4-benzoyl-1-arylpyrrole-3-carbonitriles react with arylidene malonodinitriles, ?-ketoesters and ?-diketones to afford pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives.

Mokbel, A. N., O. E. S. Tookhy, A. A. Shamaa, D. Sabry, L. A. Rashed, and A. E. M. Sayed, "Homing and Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Chondral Defects in Dogs", Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 2011. Abstract

This study was intended to verify the likelihood of homing of intra-articularily (I.A.) injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its involvement in the healing process of experimentally induced, acute and chronic, partial chondral defects in dogs.

Mokbel, A. N., O. E. S. Tookhy, A. A. Shamaa, L. A. Rashed, D. Sabry, and A. E. M. Sayed, "Homing and Reparative Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Autologus Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritic Animal Model", BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2011. Abstract

This work aimed to study the homing evidence and the reparative effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the healing process of induced osteoarthritis in experimental animal model (donkeys). Twenty-seven donkeys were equally divided into 3 groups based on the observation period after induction of arthritis (3, 6 and 9 weeks) to achieve different degrees of osteoarthritis. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of three animals each based on the follow-up period (1, 2 and 6 months) after treatment. The induction was done through intra-articular (IA) injection of 2ml of Amphotericin-B in both carpal joints. MSCs were harvested in a separate procedure, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) using monster GFP vector and suspended in hyaluronic acid for IA injection. Treatment approaches consisted of cell-treatment using MSCs suspended in 3 ml of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the right carpal joint; and using the same amount of (HA) but without MSCs for the left contralateral carpal joint to serve as a control. Animals were assessed clinically and radiologically before and after treatment. Synovial fluid was also evaluated. Histopathologically; articular cartilage structural changes, reduction of articular cartilage matrix staining, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone plate thickening were graded. Data was summarized using median and percentile for scores of histopathologic grading. Comparison between groups was done using non-parametric Mann Whitney test. The reparative effect of MSCs was significant both clinically and radiologically in all treated groups (P < 0.05) compared to the control groups. Fluorescence microscopy of sections of the cell-treated joints of all animals indicated that the GFP-transduced injected cells have participated effectively in the reparative process of the damaged articular surface and have integrated within the existing articular cartilage. The cells were associated with the surface of the cartilage and, were also detected in the interior. Homing was confirmed by the incorporation of injected GFP-labeled MSCs within the repaired newly formed cartilage. Significant recovery proves that the use of IA injection of autologous MSCs is a viable and a practical option for treating different degrees of osteoarthritis.

Zeid, K. A. M., M. B. Mohamed, and S. M. El-Shall, "Hybrid Au-CdSe and Ag-CdSe Nanoflowers and Core-Shell Nanocrystals via One-Pot Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth", Small, 2011. Abstract

A general approach, based on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of CdSe nanostructures on Au or Ag nanocrystals, for the synthesis of AuCdSe and AgCdSe hybrid nanostructures is developed. The new approach provides a versatile one-pot route for the synthesis of hybrid nanoflowers consisting of a gold or silver core and multipod CdSe rods or an intact CdSe shell with controlled thickness, depending on the nucleation and growth parameters. At lower growth temperatures such as 150 degrees C, the CdSe clusters are adsorbed on the surface of the metal cores in their surface defects, then multiple arms and branches form, resulting in nanoflower-shaped hybrid structures. Increasing the size of the metal core through the choice of the reducing and capping agents results in an improvement of the interface between the metal and CdSe domains, producing coreshell structures. The growth temperature appears to be the most important factor determining the nature of the interface between the metal and CdSe domains. At relatively high temperatures such as 300 degrees C, the formation of large, faceted Au cores creates preferential growth sites for the CdSe nanocrystalline shell, thus resulting in well-defined AuCdSe coreshell structures with large interfaces between the Au and CdSe domains. The present approach is expected to foster systematic studies of the electronic structures and optical properties of the metal semiconductor hybrid materials for potential applications in photovoltaic and nanoelectronic devices.

Farghaly, T. A., S. M. Gomha, E. M. H. Abbas, and M. M. Abdalla, "Hydrazonoyl Halides As Precursors For New Fused Heterocycles of5?- Reductase Inhibitors", Arch. Pharm. Chem. Life Sci., 2011.
Alaasara, M., C. Tschierskeb, and M. Prehmb, "Hydrogen-bonded Supramolecular Complexes Formed Between Isophthalic Acid and Pyridine-Based Derivatives", Liquid Crystals, 2011. Abstract

Two types of supramolecular liquid crystals were prepared through the formation of double hydrogen-bonded complexes between isophthalic acid (A) and two different groups of pyridine-based derivatives ( In and Ia-e). The first group of the base, In (molecular formula 4-CnH2n+1OC6H4COOC6H4-N=N-C5H4N) homologues differ from each other by the number of carbon atoms (n) in the alkoxy chain, which varies between 8, 10, 12 and 14 carbons. The second group of the pyridine-based derivatives, Ia-e (molecular formula 4-X-C6H4COOC6H4-N=N-C5H4N) analogues differ from each other by the terminal polar substituent, X, that changes between OCH3, CH3, H, NO2 and Br groups. In this manner two different groups of complexes are formed, one of them is A : 2In, (Group A), and the other is A : 2Ia-e, (Group B). All complexes were investigated for their mesophase behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry and polarised light microscopy. The formation of 1:2 hydrogen-bonded complexes was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and binary phase diagrams. Most complexes A and B show nematic and/or SmA phases. X-ray diffraction of the SmA phase of a representative complex of type A indicates a layer distance corresponding to only half of the length of the H-bonded complexes which is interpreted by a phase structure where these complexes adopt a U-shape which intercalate and form non-polar SmA phases.

El-Idreesy, T. T., and E. L. Clennan, "Hydrolytic stability of N-Methyl-2,6-dimesitylpyrylogen bis-tetrafluoroborate", Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2011. Abstract
El-Idreesy, T. T., and E. L. Clennan, "Hydrolytic stability of N-Methyl-2,6-dimesitylpyrylogen bis-tetrafluoroborate", Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2011. Abstract

The synthesis and characterization of a new mesityl ring substituted pyrylogen with a substantially decreased rate of reaction with water is reported. Computational and experimental data are presented that suggest that addition of water to the pyrylium ring of this highly sterically shielded pyrylogen is reversible. On the other hand, experimental data suggest that the overall hydrolysis of this new sterically

Abdel-wahab, A., A. - Maogood, and S., "Identification of Cryptosporidium Species Infecting Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt", Journal of American Science, 2011.
Ciobot?, V., W. Salama, N. Tarcea, P. R?sch, M. E. Aref, R. Gaupp, and J. Popp, "Identification of minerals and organic materials in Middle Eocene ironstones from the Bahariya Depression in the Western Desert of Egypt by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy", Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2011. Abstract

The Middle Eocene ironstone succession is located in the northeastern part of El Bahariya Depression,Western Desert, Egypt. This succession is subdivided into lower and upper sequences and consists of two main shallow marine ironstone facies associations.

Osman, K. M., Z. A. M. S. Girh, Bakry, M.A., and M. M. ElSafty, "Identification of the Salmonella Genes Yafd and Xtha: A Step into the Control of Salmonella Food Poisoning Associated with Consumption of Eggs in Egypt", Global Veterinaria, 2011. Abstract

All serotypes of non-typhoid Salmonella are considered as a potential hazard to human health and measures to prevent food-borne salmonellosis should therefore be directed there wise. Here we sought to report the identification and incidence of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium yafD and xthA gene families that are responsible for their persistence in egg albumen and their survival in egg are important for their transmission to the human population. The total incidence of Salmonella in the albumen samples was detected as 10.1% of the samples [Salmonella enteritidis (7.1%) and S. typhimurium (3.1%)]. As carrier for the yafD (86.7%) and xthA (13.3%) genes, S. enteritidis accounted for 85.0% of the Salmonella serotype isolates. On the other hand, S. typhimurium carrying the xthA gene, accounted for 100% of the total egg albumen Salmonella serotypes with the absence of the yafD gene from all of the S. typhimurium isolates.

Seufi, A. E. M., E. E. Hafez, and F. H. Galal, "Identification, Phylogenetic Analysis and Expression Profile of an Anionic Insect Defensin Gene, with Antibacterial Activity, from Bacterial Challenged Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera Littoralis", BMC Molecular Biology, 2011. Abstract

Background: Defensins are a well known family of cationic antibacterial peptides (AMPs) isolated from fungi, plants, insects, mussels, birds, and various mammals. They are predominantly active against gram (+) bacteria, and a few of them are also active against gram (-) bacteria and fungi. All insect defensins belonging to the invertebrate class have a consensus motif, C-X5-16-C-X3-C-X9-10-C-X4-7-CX1-C. Only seven AMPs have already been found in different lepidopteran species. No report was published on the isolation of defensin from the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

Bakry, F. A., R. T. Mohamed, and W. S. Hasheesh, "Impact of Methanol Extract of AdeniumObesum Plant on some Biochemical and Biological Parameters of BulinusTruncatus Snails", Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research, 2011.
Awad, M. I., M. M. Saleh, and T. Ohsaka, "Impact of SO2 Poisoning of Platinum Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode on Oxygen Reduction", Journal of Power Sources, 2011.
Shalaby, E. A., N. F. Nasr, and S. E. M. Sherief, "An in vitro study of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of some Nature Essential Oils", Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011.
Kobeasy, M. I., H. S. El-Beltagi, M. A. El-Shazly, and E. A. H. Khattab, "Induction of resistance in Arachis Hypogaea L", Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 2011. Abstract

Peanut mottle virus (PeMV) causing mottling, yellowing, necrosis, malformation and stunting was isolated from naturally infected peanut plants grown in El-Sharkiya Governorate. The virus was isolated mechanically and identified by indirect ELISA using both specific and induced polyclonal antiserum. Effect of virus infection on cell organelles, detected by electron microscopy, showed different degrees of degenerative changes in chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus, revealed amorphous and cylindrical cytoplasmic inclusions in infected leaf cells as pinwheel and laminated bundles. Pinwheel inclusion bodies are characteristic of Potyviruses which include PeMV. Two field experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to study the effect of spraying sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and salicylic acid (SA) at 50, 100, and 200 mmol/l to induce resistance against PeMV infection in peanut plants (cv. Giza 5). All treatments induced resistance against PeMV infection, when plants were sprayed before inoculation with the virus. Also, all tested treatments gave a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments and activity of peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) compared with infected plants. Moreover, all treatments recorded increments in seed protein and oil contents at harvest time. Also, the total unsaturated and saturated fatty acids content increased in the treated peanut seeds compared with the untreated ones.

Talaat, N. B., and B. T. Shawky, "Influence of ArbuscularMycorrhizae on Yield, Nutrients, Organic Solutes, and Antioxidant Enzymes of Two Wheat Cultivars Under Salt Stress", Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 2011. Abstract

The efficacy of arbuscularmycorrhizae (AM) on nutrients, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes of wheat under salt stress was investigated and related to root colonization and plant productivity. The mycorrhizal inoculation increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake, soluble sugars, free amino acids, and proline accumulation, as well as peroxidase and catalase activities under saline conditions as compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. On the other hand, Na concentration was lower in mycorrhizal than in nonmycorrhizal plants grown under saline conditions. Arbuscularmycorrhizae protected wheat against the detrimental effects of salinity and stimulated its productivity. Hence, mycorrhizal colonization can play a vital role in the mitigation of the adverse effects of salinity by improving the wheat osmotic adjustment response, enhancing its defense system, and alleviating oxidative damage to cells. Arbuscularmycorrhizae are able to alter plant physiology in a way that empowers the plant to grow more efficiently on salt-affected lands.

Kasem, M. A., R. E. Russo, and M. A. Harith, "Influence of Biological Degradation and Environmental Effects on the Interpretation of Archeological Bone Samples with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy", J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2011. Abstract

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged in the past decade as a very promising technique for the analysis and characterization of a broad variety of objects of cultural heritage especially bio-archeological samples such as calcified tissues namely teeth and bones. The most important advantages of LIBS from the archeological point of view are its quasi nondestructive nature and its potential for performing in situ measurements. In the present work human calcified tissue samples of recent and archeological bones have been studied via the LIBS technique.

Desoky, H. F. A., and M. I. Hassan, "Influence of Bovine Colostrum and Weight Training on Bone Mineral Density and Muscular Strength and Shooting Accuracy for Soccer Junior", World Journal of Sport Sciences, 2011. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of bovine colostrum (BC) and weight training (WT) on the density and content of bone mineral (BMD) (BMC), muscular strength (MS) and shooting accuracy (SA) for soccer juniors. Twenty male soccer juniors were randomly divided into two experimental groups each one 10 soccer juniors, 1, BC group without training, 2 BC+WT group and required to consume either 40 g/d BC powder for 12 week. Two measures were used to assess performance before (pre) and after (post) a 12-wk training period. Researchers has tended to use BC and BC+WT program to identify their impact on the BMD,BMC,MA and SA for soccer juniors. BMD and BMC was assessed via dual x-ray absorptiometry the experimental method was applied on a subject of 20 soccer juniors in Sharkia club in Egypt, their ages under 12 years old. One of the most important results of this research was a significant difference among BC and BC+WT groups in BMD Femoral neck (g/cm2), BMD torch (g/cm2), BMC Femoral neck (g), BMC Troche (g), BMD spine (L2- L4) (g/cm2) and (BMC) spine (L2-L4) (g), in leg press, Bench press, leg curl, Leg extension, Over head press, Press behind neck, Abdomen muscle, Vertical jump and SA for BC+WT group in the post measurements . Also, there is a higher enhancement in the post measurement of BC+WT group than the BC group. Also, there is an enhancement of the BMD Femoral neck (g/cm2), BMD torch (g/cm2), BMC Femoral neck (g), BMC Troche (g), BMD spine (L2-L4) (g/cm2) and BMC spine (L2-L4) (g) (15.79%, 16.47%, 19.87%, 17.06%, 15.45%, 27.06%) consequently, MS in leg press, Bench press, Leg curl, Leg extension, Over head press, press behind neck, Abdomen muscle, Vertical jump and SA (48.54%, 35.77%, 56.55%, 40.46%, 55.25%, 56.03%, 35.79%, 37.01%, 62.23%) consequently for the post one for soccer juniors.

Eleiwa, M. E., and A. Ibrahim, "Influence of Brassinosteroids on Wheat Plant (Triticum aestivum L", Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2011. Abstract
Eleiwa, M. E., and A. Ibrahim, "Influence of Brassinosteroids on Wheat Plant (Triticum aestivum L", Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2011. Abstract

A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigating saline water at levels (0.2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm NaCl solution and rates of BRs "28-homBL" (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L) on chemical components and nutrients status in grains and straw of grains and straw of wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L). Salinity reduced sugar (reducing and non reducing), total carbohydrate and protein percentage of wheat grains while foliar application with BRs significantly increase gradually all the chemical constituents under study as compared with control. In addition foliar application with BRs also significantly increased the concentration and total uptake of macro and micronutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in straw and grains of wheat plants at harvest date.