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El-Rahman, A. H. A., S. A. Salih, and A. A. M. El-Wahab, "Effect of Phosphoric Acid on the Electronic and Diffusion Properties of the Anodic Passive Layer Formed on Pb-1", Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology, 2011. Abstract
El-Rahman, A. H. A., S. A. Salih, and A. A. M. El-Wahab, "Effect of phosphoric acid on the performance of low antimony grid of Pb-acid cell under constant current charging and discharging", Mat.-wiss. u.Werkstofftech, 2011. Abstract

Effect of phosphoric acid on the performance of Pb-1.7%Sb grid of lead-acid cell is studied in 5 M H2SO4 by cyclic galvanostatic polarization and impedance spectroscopy. An increase in capacitance to a maximum is recorded during the initial stages of the electro-reduction of PbO2 into Pb(II) compounds and attributed to concurrent compositional and dimensional changes. These changes include removal of O2 bubbles, insertion of large amounts of H2SO4 and H2O. Efficiency of PbO2 formation decreases, while its rate of self-discharge increases with increasing the charging current and in the presence of H3PO4. The charge capacity increases with increasing the discharging current due to the decrease in the self-discharge. The charge capacity is lower in the presence of H3PO4. On increasing the cycle number, the corrodibility of the grid increases, because more layers of the surface Pb are involved in the self-discharge. H3PO4 significantly retards the effect of cycle number.

Mady, M. M., W. A. Mohammed, N. M. El-Guendy, and A. A. Elsayed, "Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on the DNA/PEI Polyplexes Properties", Romanian J. of Biophysics, 2011. Abstract
Mady, M. M., W. A. Mohammed, N. M. El-Guendy, and A. A. Elsayed, "Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on the DNA/PEI Polyplexes Properties", Romanian J. of Biophysics, 2011. Abstract

Cationic polymers have been used to condense DNA by electrostatic interaction into small particles (polyplexes), for protecting the DNA from degradation and enhancing its uptake via endocytosis. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most advanced delivery systems that can condense DNA efficiently forming PEI/DNA complexes. The effect of PEI molecular weight (2k, 5k and 25k) on the physicochemical and biological properties of the polyplexes was investigated. As the molecular weight of PEI increased, the condensation ability, surface charge increased while complexes size decreased. PEI 25k has the lowest buffer capacity compared to 2k and 5k PEI. Transfection efficiency of examined polyplexes was higher in MCF7 cells than in HeLa cells. 25k PEI formed smaller polyplexes and achieved higher transfection efficiencies (into two cell lines HeLaand MCF7) than 2k PEI and 5k PEI. Attachment of different hydrophobic amino acid residues and suitable targeting ligands onto the surface of 25k PEI will increase its transfection efficiency.

Hegazi, E. S., S. M. Mohamed, M.R.El-Sonbaty, A. S. K. M. El-Naby, and T. F. El-Sharony, "Effect of Potassium Nitrate on Yield, Fruit Quality and Nutritional Status of Olive Cv", Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants, 2011. Abstract

The present investigation was carried out during two successive seasons 2009 and 2010 to study the effective concentration and application time of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on vegetative growth, nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of Picual olive trees under sandy soil conditions. The obtained results showed that, foliar application of potassium nitrate at 4 % after final fruit set or pit hardening improve the vegetative growth, nutritional status especially in the second season and the productivity in both seasons. While sprays potassium nitrate at 4 % after pit hardening gave the best values of fruit quality and flesh oil content of Picual olive fruit in both seasons of the study.

Ali, R. F. M., A. M. El-Anany, and A. M. Gaafar, "Effect of Potato Flakes as Fat Replacer on the Quality Attributes of Low-Fat Beef Patties", Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2011. Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of lowfatbeef patties formulated by replacing different levels (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of fat with hydrated potatoflakes. Uncooked and cooked beef patties formulated with potato flakes had higher (p?0.05) moisture,carbohydrate and ash content and lower (p?0.05) fat contents than that of the control. Caloric values of beefpatties was lower (p?0.05) than control by between 7 and 57%, cholesterol content of patties decreased as levelof potato flakes increased. Cooking yield, Water Holding Capacity (WHC) as well as moisture and fatretention were increased significantly (p?0.05) with increasing the levels of potato flakes. Overall acceptabilityvalues for beef patties formulated with potato flakes were higher (p?0.05) than the control samples. Beef pattiesformulated with 75% potato flakes as fat replacer had significantly (p?0.05) the highest score of overallacceptability. Hydrated potato flack could be an excellent replacement for fat in beef patties maintainingacceptable and desirable sensory properties.

El-Beltagi, H. E. - D. S., "Effect of Roasting Treatments on Protein Fraction Profiles, some Enzyme Activities of Egyptian Peanuts", International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2011.
Hussein, M. M., R. A. Sakr, L. A. Badr, and K. M. A. L. Mashat, "Effect of some Fertilizers on Botanical and Chemical Characteristics of Pot Marigold Plant (Calendula Officinalis L", Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants, 2011. Abstract

The present study was carried out at the Experimental Nursery of the Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt during the two winter successive seasons, of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. This work was designed to investigate the effect of cattle manure (CM) and sheep manure (SM), biofertilizer (Bio, liquid inoculum containing 108 cells/ml of associative diasotrophs) and inorganic fertilizer (N) as single or combined treatments on morphology, yield and chemical composition of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis, L.) plants grown under sandy soil conditions. P and K fertilizers were used as a basal dressing for all the treatments. Results indicated that application of different fertilization treatments had a considerable effect on the different vegetative growth characteristics of Calendula officinalis,L. plants, compared to the unfertilized control. In both seasons, in most cases the highest values for vegetative growth characteristics (plant height, main stem length, length and diameter of median internode of main stem, number of secondary branches, number of leaves and leaf area of median leaf of main stem, diameter and stalk length of capitulum, number of capitula/ plant, number and weight of fruits/capitulum as well as fresh and dry weights of leaves, stems and roots) were determined with plants received 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM + Bio followed by that received 0.5 SM + Bio and 0.5 CM + Bio treatments, respectively. Generally, there was no significant difference between plants received 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM + Bio and that received 0.5 SM + Bio. In both seasons, plants fertilized with 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM + Bio gave the highest chlorophyll a+b, followed by that received 0.5 SM + Bio, 0.5 CM + Bio, 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM treatments in descending order. In both seasons, plants fertilized with 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM + Bio gave the highest carotenoids content (0.0.70 and 0.63 mg/g fresh matter, respectively).In both seasons, the highest total carbohydrates content was determined in leaves + stems and roots of Calendula officinalis, L. plants received 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM + Bio followed by that received 0.5 SM + Bio and 0.5 CM + Bio treatments, respectively. In both seasons, the highest N, P and K% of dry matter in leaves + stems and roots were recorded with plants received 0.5 CM + 0.5 SM + Bio followed by that received 0.5 SM + Bio and 0.5 CM + Bio treatments, respectively.

Mohamed, G. G., A. K. A. El-Hameed, A. E. - M. Mahmoud, L. A. El-Mohsen, and M. M. N. El-Din, "Effect of Some Organic, Inorganic and Natural Compounds on Removal of Biogenic Amine Using Spectrophotometric Method", ActaPharmaceuticaSciencia, 2011. Abstract

A number of common foods contain appreciable levels of amines, such as serotonin, epinephrine,tyramine, tryptamine, histamine and dopamine. These compounds are referred to collectively as pressoramines because they act as potent vasoconstrictors and thereby elevate the blood pressure. So, this workhas been carried out to investigate the conditions which lead to removal of the biogenic amines throughthe model system. Biogenic amines; histamine and tyramine, from some foods such as tomato, strawberry,banana and mango are removed in order to prevent their allergy effect. Histamine and tyramine have beenaffected by pyrogallol, catechol, starch, ascorbic and chlorogenic acids at different levels with differentconditions. Some natural additives showed an effective effect on disappearance of histamine and tyramine.

Hamdi, H., A. - W. EL-Ghareeb, A. Shamakh, and S. Saeed, "Effect of Testosterone on Hind Limb Regeneration in Tadpoles of the Egyptian Toad, Bufo Regularis Reuss", Life Science Journal, 2011. Abstract

The present study investigated the role of Testosterone on the regenerative capacity in twometamorphic stages of the tadpoles of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis Reuss, after amputation of the hind limb at the mid-shank level. It indicated an enhancing effect of Testosterone treatment on limb regeneration in the prometamorphic (stage 56), where 90% of the cases regenerated toes ranging from five to one compared with 77.3% in the control group, also the differential effect of testosterone on the number of toes was obvious in the treated animals, where 30% and 35% of the cases regenerated five and four toes respectively compared with 27.3% and 31.8% in the control group. In the metamorphic stage (stage58), the effect of testosterone was also obvious, where 38.6% of the treated cases restored toes compared with 13.3% of the cases in the control group. 45.5% of the treated cases restored part of the foot

Robaa, S. M., "Effect of Urbanization and Industrialization Processes on Outdoor Thermal Human Comfort in Egypt", Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 2011. Abstract

Detailed studies on the effect of urbanization and industrialization processes on outdoor thermal human com- fort in Greater Cairo region, Egypt have been performed in this study. Four different districts in Greater Cairo region have been selected to represent rural, suburban, typical urban and industrial areas. The data of surface dry, wet bulb temperatures and wind speed for two different periods represent non-urbanized and urbanized periods have been used. Discomfort indices for the two periods have been calculated for the four districts.

El-Shahat, K. H., and A. U. M. Monem, "Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Vitamin E and /or Selenium on Metabolic and Reproductive Performance of Egyptian Baladi Ewes under Subtropical Conditions", World Applied Sciences Journal, 2011. Abstract

Forty-eight Baladi ewes were used to determine the effects of supplementation of vitamin E and /or Selenium on Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and /or Selenium on metabolic and reproductive performance of Egyptian Baladi under subtropical conditions. The ewes were randomly assigned into six equal groups (n=8); group 1, was kept as a control and was fed the basal diet; group 2 selenium (Se) was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.3 mg of selenium per kg of diet. Group 3 vitamin E (Vit E ) and group 4 (Vit E ) received the same basal diet supplemented with 25, 50 mg Vit E per kg of diet respectively. Group 5 selenium+ vitamin E (Se +Vit E ) and group 6 selenium+ vitamin E (Se+VitE ) were fed the same basal diet supplemented with 0.3mg of selenium plus 25 and 50 mg Vit E per kg of diet respectively.

Jim, E., S. Chamorro, M. Frikha, H. M. Safaa1, R. Lazaro, and G. G. Mateos, "Effects of Increasing Levels of Pea Hulls in The Diet on Productive Performance, Development of The Gastrointestinal Tract, and Nutrient Retention of Broilers From one to Eighteen Days of Age", Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2011. Abstract

The effects of inclusion of pea hulls (PH) in the diet on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract and nutrient retention were studied in broilers from 1 to 18 d of age. There were a control diet based on low fibre ingredients (69.3 total dietary fibre (16.1 g crude fibre/kg)) and three additional diets that resulted from the dilution of the basal diet with 25, 50 and 75 g PH/kg (81.2, 93.2, and 105.1 g total dietary fibre/kg diet, respectively). Each treatment was replicated six times and the experimental unit was a cage with 12 chicks. Growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract and the coefficients of total tract apparent retention (CTTAR) of nutrients were recorded at 6, 12 and 18 d of age. In addition, jejunal morphology was measured at 12 and 18 d and the coefficients of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nutrients at 18 d of age. Pea hulls inclusion affected all the parameters studied.

Youssef, G. A., N. A. Ezzeldeen, A. M. Mostafa, and N. A. Sherif, "Effects of Isolated Lactobacillus acidophilus as a Probiotic on Chicken Vaccinated and Infected with Salmonella typhimurium", Global Veterinaria 7 (5): 449-455 ( 2011), 2011. Abstract

The efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotic as alternatives to antibiotics in prevention of reduction of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infections in broiler chickens were studied, as well as the effect on shedding of S. typhimurium in both intestine content and internal organs in the experimental chickens. Obtained results proved that addition of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and/or prebiotic (Agrimos) to the ration of the chickens which were vaccinated with live attenuated S. typhimurium vaccine enhance the immune response and produced higher antibody titres than those vaccinated only.

Heakal, E. - T. F., O. S. Shehata, and N. S. Tantawy, "Effects of Nb and Cr on the Corrosion Characterization of Al-Containing Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels in Neutral Chloride Solutions", Corrosion Science Section, 2011. Abstract

Electrochemical measurements were used to characterize the effect of Nb and Cr on the corrosion behavior of two types of Al-bearing transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels in naturally aerated sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions over a wide concentration range. In all cases, the open-circuit potential shifts toward more negative values with time until the potential acquires a steady-state value, which depends on both steel composition and chloride concentration. The sample with higher Al content (1.32 wt%) displays significantly more negative corrosion potential (Ecorr), larger corrosion current density (icorr) in polarization curves and lower fitted film resistance (R1) values in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots.

MotiorRahman, M., A. A. Soaud, F. A. H. Darwish, and M. Sofian-Azirun, "Effects of Sulfur and Nitrogen on Nutrients Uptake of Corn using Acidified Water", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was carried out with elemental sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer usingacidified water (pH 6.5) to determine nutrients uptake and growth of maize plants grown in calcareoussandy soil. Four levels of elemental sulfur (0, 1, 5 and 10 t ha-1), two levels of N (0 and 0.34 t N ha-1) weretested at Al Foah Agricultural Experiment Farm, United Arab Emirates (UAE) University. In Al Semaihsoil, the pH (1.21-1.33) and electrical conductivity (EC) (7.61 dSm-1) decreased by application ofelemental S plus N, while EC rose (3.84 dSm-1) and pH reduced (1.20 to 1.11) in Al Zaid soil. Acidityimproved by decreasing soil pH, Na and Cl concentration in both soils. A significant change wasobserved by application of acidified water at Al Semaih soil causing high levels in the initial status ofEC, Na and Cl concentrations in the soil. A negative relationship was observed with soil pH among N, P,S, Fe, Zn and Mn, while uptake availability of sulfur and nitrogen had positive relationship with allnutrients. Elemental sulfur at the rate of 5 t ha-1 and nitrogen had a significant contribution towardsuptake availability of N, P, S, Fe, Zn and Mn in both Al Zaid and Al Semaih soils. Based on experimentalfindings, elemental S at the rate of 5 tha-1 and N fertilizer (0.34 t ha-1) is suitable for the growth of maizeat both soils. Al Zaid soil possesses advantages over Al Semaih soil due to its high nutrient uptakeability.

El-Sayed, A., H. S. Badr, R. Yahia, S. M. Salem, and A. M. Kandil, "Effects of Thirty-Minute Mobile Phone Irradiation on Morphological and Physiological Parameters and Gene Expression in Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses", Afr J Biotechnol, 2011. Abstract

{We investigated the potential effects of 30 min irradiation from a mobile telecommunication system. 60 Pregnantrats divided to three groups; the first serve as the control (G1

Amer, S. A. M., and M. Shobrak, "The Efficiency of Mitochondrial DNA Markers in Constructing Genetic Relationship Among Oryx Species", African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Abstract

To date, only parts of mitochondrial DNA from cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and non-coding D loop had been sequenced for different species of Oryx. Discrepancy in the genetic relationship among Oryx species was previously revealed when combinations of these sequences wereanalyzed. In the present study, various combinations of these data sets and different sampling sizes of the closely related tribes of the family Bovidae were manipulated using bioinformatics. These data were used to provide the genetic kinship among different Oryx species. The complete cytochrome b gene sequence was also used alone for the same purpose after excluding the third position of its codons. Using Bayesian (BA), maximum-parsimony (MP), maximum-likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) analytical methods

Bhrawy, D. E. H. A. H., and E. S. S. Eldien, "Efficient Chebyshev spectral methods for solving multi-term fractional orders differential equations", Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2011.
Sweilam, N. H., M. M. Khader, and A. M. S. Mahdy, "An Efficient Numerical Method for Solvingthe Fractional Diffusion Equation", Journal of Applied Mathematics and Bioinformatics, 2011. Abstract
Sweilam, N. H., M. M. Khader, and T. A. Assiri, "Efficient Numerical Treatment for Fractional Partial Differential Equations", Nonlinear Sci. Lett.A, 2011. Abstract

This paper studies numerically two-dimensional fractional super-diffusive differential equations. The Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM), the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the Variational Iteration Method (VIM) are presented. Comparison with the theoretical solutions shows that these methods are efficient and have the same order of accuracy.

Hamdi, S. A. H., "Egyptian Red Sea Shells of Ras Sudr region: Northeast of the Gulf of Suez (a high Biodiversity Region of the Egyptian Red Sea)", Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011. Abstract

One crustacean shell and 24 gastropod shells related to 13 different families are collected and described from Ras Sudr region (northeast Gulf of Suez), Egypt. These are one species from cirripedia, one species from vermetidae, three species from Trochidae, one species from Turbinidae, one species from Neritidae, one species from Turritellidae, five species from cerithiidae, three species from Strombidae, one species from Fasciolariidae, one species from Melongenidae, four species from Muricidae, two species from Cypraeidae and one species from Naticidae.

Aboul-Enein, A. M., A. M. Al-Abd, E. A. Shalaby, F. Abul-Ela, A. A. Nasr-Allah, A. M. Mahmoud, and H. A. EL-SHEMY, "Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) solms: From Water Parasite To Potential Medicinal Remedy", Plant Signaling & Behavior, 2011.
Hassebo, Y., and K. Elsayed, "Elastic Backscatter Lidar Signal To Noise Ratio Improvement For Daylight Operations: Polarization Selection And Automation", World Scientific, 2011. Abstract

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) improvements is one of the important issue in lidar measurements, particularly for lidar daytime operations. Skylight background noise precincts lidar daytime operations and disturbs the measurement sensitivity. In the past, polarization selective lidar systems have been used mostly for separating and analyzing polarization of lidar returns for a variety of purposes. A polarization discrimination technique was proposed to maximize lidar detected SNR taking advantage of the natural polarization properties of scattered skylight radiation to track and minimize detected sky background noise (BGS). In our previous work this tracking technique was achieved by rotating, manually, a combination of polarizer and analyzer on both the lidar transmitter and receiver subsystems, respectively. Minimum BGS take place at polarization orientation that follows the solar azimuth angle, even for high aerosol loading. In this article, we report a design to automate the polarization discrimination technique by real time tracking of the azimuth angle to attain the maximum lidar SNR. Using an appropriate control system, it would then be possible to track the minimum BGS by rotating the detector analyzer and the transmission polarizer simultaneously, achieving the same manually obtained results. Analytical results for New York City are summarized and an approach for applying the proposed design globally is investigated.