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Azim, S. A. A., R. M. Hussein, A. A. Badr, and M. R. Rizk, "Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Against Isoniazid and RifampicinInduced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats ", Life Science Journal , vol. 11, issue 12, pp. 1036-1046, 2014.
Azim, S. A. A., H. A. Darwish, M. Z. Rizk, S. A. Ali, and M. O. Kadry, "Amelioration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced liver injury in mice: possible role of some antioxidants.", Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie, vol. 67, issue 4, pp. 305-14, 2015 Apr. Abstract

This study investigates the efficacy of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E in ameliorating some of the biochemical indices induced in the liver of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) intoxicated mice. Nano-anatase TiO2 (21 nm) was administered (150 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks followed by the aforementioned antioxidants either alone or in combination for 1 month. TiO2 NPs significantly increased serum liver function enzyme activities, liver coefficient and malondialdehyde levels in hepatic tissue. They also suppressed hepatic glutathione level and triggered an inflammatory response via the activation of macrophages and the enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels. Moreover, the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2, nuclear factor kappa B and Bax was up-regulated whereas that of Bcl-2 was down-regulated following TiO2 NPs. Additionally, these NPs effectively activated caspase-3 and caused liver DNA damage. Oral administration of idebenone (200mg/kg), carnosine (200mg/kg) and vitamin E (100mg/kg) alleviated the hazards of TiO2 NPs with the combination regimen showing a relatively higher effect. The histopathological examination reinforced these findings. In conclusion, oxidative stress could be regarded as a key player in TiO2 NPs-induced liver injury. The study also highlights the anti-inflammatory and the anti-apoptotic potentials of these antioxidants against the detrimental effects of TiO2 NPs.

Ali, O., H. A. Darwish, K. M. Eldeib, and S. A. A. Azim, "miR-26a Potentially Contributes to the Regulation of Fatty Acid and Sterol Metabolism In Vitro Human HepG2 Cell Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2018, pp. 1-11, 2018. Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic-related disorder ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed at assessing the regulatory and protective role of miR-26a on lipid metabolism and progression of NAFLD in human HepG2 cells loaded with free fatty acids (FFA). Lentivirus expressing miR-26a or negative control miR was used to transduce HepG2 cells and to establish stable cell lines. Gain or loss of function using an miR-26a inhibitor was used to compare triglyceride content (TG), total cholesterol level (CL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the level of apoptosis. In addition, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the mRNA levels of lipogenesis, TG synthesis, storage genes, inflammatory and fibrogenic markers, and autophagic besides endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers after gaining or losing the function of miR-26a. miR-26a levels decreased in response to FFA in human HepG2 cells. After the establishment of a stable cell line, the upregulation of miR-26a resulted in the downregulation of TG, CL, and MDA levels, through regulating mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid homeostasis, ER stress marker, inflammatory and fibrogenic markers. Nevertheless, there was a marked increment in the mRNA expression of autophagic marker genes. Moreover, miR-26a overexpression protects the cells from apoptosis, whereas inhibition of miR-26a, using an anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide, decreased the expression of miR-26a which potentially contributes to altered lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells loaded with FFA. In conclusion, these findings suggested that miR-26a has a crucial role in regulating fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis in HepG2 cells, along with the offered protection against the progression of NAFLD in vitro. Hence, miRNAs could receive growing attention as useful noninvasive diagnostic markers to follow the progression of NAFLD and to identify novel therapeutic targets.

Abdelazim, S. A., H. A. Darwish, S. A. Ali, M. Z. Rizk, and M. O. Kadry, "Potential antifibrotic and angiostatic impact of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E in nano-sized titanium dioxide-induced liver injury.", Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, vol. 35, issue 6, pp. 2402-11, 2015. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of individual and combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on ameliorating some of the biochemical indices of nano-sized titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) in mice liver.

METHODS: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of nano-sized anatase TiO2 (21 nm) on hepatic cell lines (HepG 2) was investigated. Additionally, n-TiO2 was orally administered (150 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks, followed by a daily intragastric gavage of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month.

RESULTS: n-TiO2 induced significant cytotoxicity in hepatic cell lines and elevated the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. Meanwhile, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly reduced. Moreover, RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that n-TiO2 significantly altered the mRNA and protein expressions of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) and Smad-2, as well as vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF). Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced these results.

CONCLUSION: Idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with the combination regimen demonstrating the most pronounced effect. Oxidative stress, liver fibrosis and angiogenesis may be implicated in n-TiO2-induced liver toxicity.

Abdelazim, S. A., O. G. Shaker, Y. A. H. Aly, and M. A. Senousy, "Uncovering serum placental-related non-coding RNAs as possible biomarkers of preeclampsia risk, onset and severity revealed MALAT-1, miR-363 and miR-17.", Scientific reports, vol. 12, issue 1, pp. 1249, 2022. Abstract

New predictors that could boost early detection of preeclampsia (PE) and prognosticate its severity are urgently needed. We examined serum miR-17, miR-363, MALAT-1 and HOTAIR as potential biomarkers of PE risk, onset and severity. This prospective study included 160 pregnant females; 82 PE cases and 78 healthy pregnancies. Serum samples were collected between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation. Early-onset PE was defined as developing clinical manifestations at ≤ 34 gestational weeks. Severe PE was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg and proteinuria (≥ 2 g/24 h or ≥ 2+ dipstick). Selection of PE-related non-coding RNAs and functional target gene analysis were conducted using bioinformatics analysis. Expression profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR. Serum miR-363 and MALAT-1 were downregulated, meanwhile miR-17 was upregulated, and HOTAIR was not significantly altered in PE compared with healthy pregnancies. miR-17 was elevated while miR-363 and MALAT-1 were reduced in severe versus mild PE. miR-363 was lower in early-onset versus late-onset PE. MALAT-1, miR-17 and miR-363 showed diagnostic potential and discriminated severe PE, whereas miR-363 distinguished early-onset PE in the receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. miR-363 and MALAT-1 were significantly associated with early and severe PE, respectively in multivariate logistic analysis. In PE, miR-17 and MALAT-1 were significantly correlated with gestational age (r = - 0.328 and r = 0.322, respectively) and albuminuria (r = 0.312, and r = - 0.35, respectively). We constructed the MALAT-1, miR-363, and miR-17-related protein-protein interaction networks linked to PE. Serum miR-17, miR-363 and MALAT-1 could have utility as new biomarkers of PE diagnosis. miR-363 may be associated with early-onset PE and MALAT-1 downregulation correlates with PE severity.

Abdelazeim, S. A., N. I. Shehata, Hanan Farouk Aly, and S. G. E. Shams, "Amelioration of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in copper oxide nanoparticles-induced liver injury in rats by potent antioxidants ", SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. (2020)10:10812, pp. 14, 2020.