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2018
Bahnassy, A. A., M. M. Saber, M. G. Mahmoud, M. S. Abdellateif, M. Abd El-Mooti Samra, R. M. Abd El-Fatah, A. - R. N. Zekri, and S. E. Salem, "The role of circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer: prognostic and predictive value.", Molecular biology reports, 2018 Sep 18. Abstractthe_role_of_circulating_tumor_cells_in_metastatic_breast_cancer.pdf

The aim of the current study was to assess the prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their related markers at different points of chemotherapy regimens in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. The impact of CTCs on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were also assessed. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 66 female patients with MBC at different time intervals for evaluation of CTCs by flow cytometry (FC). cytokeratin 19 (CK19), mammaglobin, prolactin inducible peptide (PIP), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were also assessed by qRT-PCR. Analysis of different CTC levels (at 4, 5, and 6 cells/7 ml), showed statistically significant values at 4 cells/7 ml blood. The presence of baseline CTCs < 4 cells/7 ml, associated significantly with higher PFS (P value = 0.03). Patients showing a decrease in the CTCs level after treatment had significantly prolonged median PFS and OS rates compared to those whose CTCs level increased (P = 0.007 and P = 0.014; respectively). Mammaglobin, CK19, PIP, ALDH1 and hCG expression did not affect PFS or OS. However, patients with CTCs ≥ 4 at diagnosis had higher rates of progression compared to those with CTCs < 4 (1.9 times, P = 0.07), and who metastasized before 4 years showed a worse decrease outcomes (they were 2.4 time more progressed than those who metastasized after 4 years; P = 0.029). CTCs could be an independent prognostic and predictive biomarker for MBC patients' outcomes. Although none of the assessed genes (mammaglobin, CK19, PIP, ALDH1 and hCG) showed correlation with PFS or OS rates, further studies on a larger number of patients are required to validate the current results.

Shams-EL-Din, A. A., N. A. El-Desoukey, D. G. Tawadrous, N. M. Fouad, M. A. Abdelmooti, and S. F. Hotar, "The potential association of CMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte reconstitution with the risk of CMV reactivation and persistency in post allogeneic stem cell transplant patients.", Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 23, issue 8, pp. 463-469, 2018 Sep. Abstractthe_potential_association_of_cmv_specific_cd8_t_lymphocyte_reconstitution.pdf

OBJECTIVES: development of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cell response is crucial in preventing symptomatic CMV infection specially, in stem cell transplant (SCT) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate CMV-specific CD8+ T cell reconstitution in allogeneic SCT recipients and to study the possible association between CMV-specific CD8+ T cell recovery with protection from CMV reactivation and persistency.

METHODS: Human leuKocyte antigen (HLA)-tetramers were used for CMV-specific CD8+ cell quantitation by Flow cytometry in twenty post-allogeneic SCT patients.

RESULTS: Nine patients (45%) developed rapid recovery of CMV-specific CD8+ cells, among them; 7 patients (78%) had no CMV reactivation in the first 95 days post-transplant. Five patients had developed persistent CMV viremia; all of them had not developed CMV-specific CD8+ recovery till day 95 post-transplant. Patients with persistent CMV viremia had a statistically significant lower means of CMV-specific CD8+ percent and absolute count compared to those without persistent viremia (p = .001, .015), respectively.

DISCUSSION: The incidence of CMV reactivation and persistency was higher among patients with delayed CMV-specific CD8+ reconstitution in the first 95 days post-transplant.

CONCLUSION: CMV-specific CD8+ cells can help in categorizing patients into risk groups: (early recovery/low risk) and (delayed recovery/increased risk), this tool may guide clinicians in the selection of patients who may profit from prophylactic antiviral therapy and frequent viral monitoring.

Elnahass, Y. H., H. K. Mahmoud, M. M. Mattar, O. A. Fahmy, M. A. Samra, R. M. Abdelfattah, F. A. Elrefaey, H. M. Fahmy, G. M. Fathy, A. Abdulgawad, et al., "MPN10 score and survival of molecularly annotated myeloproliferative neoplasm patients.", Leukemia & lymphoma, vol. 59, issue 4, pp. 844-854, 2018 04. Abstractmpn10_score_and_survival_of_molecularly_annotated_mpn_patients.pdf

JAK2, CALR, MPL and triple-negative mutational status has a direct impact on symptom severity and disease burden assessed by MPN10 score in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Among 93 patients; median MPN10 score was 48 (5-76) in JAK2 mutants versus 25 (4-80) in JAK2 negative (p < .001); 22.5 (4-65) in CALR mutants versus 35 (5-80) in CALR negative (p < .050) and 21 (10-48) in triple negative versus 40 (4-80) in JAK2/CALR/MPL mutants (p < .001). At three years, progression free and overall survival of JAK2-positive versus JAK2-negative patients were 62% versus 100% (p < .001); 85% versus 100% (p = .011) and were 100% versus 78% (p = .067); 100% versus 92% (p = .197) in CALR-positive versus CALR-negative patients and 100% versus 75% (p = .004); 100% versus 90% (p = .015) in triple negative versus mutant patients, respectively. MPN10 score in association with driver gene mutations can be used as a predictor of survival in MPN patients.

Maher, M., A. Elhaddad, M. Samra, R. Abdelfatah, M. Elgammal, and H. Kamel, "Egyptian Experience in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation", Clin Lymph Myel Leuk., vol. 18, issue Supplement 1, pp. S304–S305: SCT-024, 2018. egyptian_experience_in_haploidentical_hsct.pdf
Elnahass, Y. H., O. A. Fahmy, M. A. Samra, F. A. Elrefaey, M. T. Bokhary, H. Elsherif, and H. H. Afifi, "Poor Outcome of CRLF2 Rearranged Philadelphia Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Adults Patients", Blood, vol. 132 , issue Suppl 1 , pp. Abst. 5290, 2018.
2017
Hussein, A. A., A. A. Hamidieh, A. Elhaddad, M. Ramzi, T. B. Othman, F. Hussain, D. Dennison, P. Ahmed, M. Abboud, A. Al-Ahmari, et al., "First report of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activities in the eastern mediterranean region from 1984 to 2011: on behalf of the pediatric cancer working committee of the eastern mediterranean blood and marrow transplantation group.", Bone marrow transplantation, vol. 52, issue 1, pp. 120-125, 2017 Jan. Abstract

To describe the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activities for children in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region, data on transplants performed for children less than 18 years of age between 1984 and 2011 in eight EM countries (Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) were collected. A total of 5187 transplants were performed, of which 4513 (87%) were allogeneic and 674 (13%) were autologous. Overall, the indications for transplantation were malignant diseases in 1736 (38.5%) and non-malignant in 2777 (61.5%) patients. A myeloablative conditioning regimen was used in 88% of the allografts. Bone marrow (BM) was the most frequent source of stem cells (56.2%), although an increasing use of PBSC was observed in the last decade. The stem cell source of autologous HSCT has shifted over time from BM to PBSC, and 80.9% of autologous HSCTs were from PBSCs. The donors for allogeneic transplants were matched-related in 94.5% of the cases, and unrelated transplants, mainly cord blood (99%) in 239 (5.5%) cases. This is the first report to describe the pediatric HSCT activities in EM countries. Non-malignant disorders are the main indication for allogeneic transplantation. Frequency of alternate donor transplantation is low.

Aboelhassan, R., H. A. Ali, A. Mohammed, A. mousa, M. E. Hassan, M. A. M. Samra, and R. Abdel Fattah, "Management of Hard Palatine Fistula Caused by Granulocytic Sarcoma: Case Report.", The Gulf journal of oncology, vol. 1, issue 23, pp. 72-76, 2017 Jan. Abstract

Granulocytic Sarcoma (GS) is a rare condition with a wide list of differential diagnosis and debatable guidelines of treatment in different cancer centers. Most of literature recommended systemic chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy and small role of surgery. One of the rarest sites for myeloid sarcoma is hard palate, which usually worsen the quality of life of the patient due to difficulty in feeding, drinking and speaking. We are reporting a case of hard palatine fistula caused by granulocytic sarcoma, in which we tried to get local control of disease with 3 dimension conformal radiation therapy 3DCRT and surgery with systemic control with chemotherapy using recommendation of multidisciplinary team and targeting mainly patient quality of life.

FATHY, G., A. El-Haddad, H. Mahmoud, O. Fahmy, R. Abdelfattah, M. Abdel-Mooti, M. Bokhary, and S. Ibrahim, "ATG Based Conditioning Regimen in Stem Cells Transplantation of Fanconi Anemia: A Single Center Experience of 63 Patients.", Annals of Bone Marrow Research, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 8-12, 2017. atg_based_conditioning_regimen_in_stem_cells_transplantation_of_fanconi_anemia-_a_single_center_experience_of_63_patients.pdf
FATHY, G., Y. Elnahass, O. Fahmy, M. Samra, R. AbdelelFattah, A. Elhaddad, A. Sobhy, S. Mohamed, M. Bokhary, and H. Mahmoud, "Non-TBI Based Conditioning Regimen in Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (PBSCT) for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients: A Single Center Experience", Blood, vol. 130, issue Suppl 1 , pp. Abst. 5474, 2017.
Elmahgoub, I. R., H. M. Gouda, M. A. Samra, IAShaheen, and A. H. ElMaraashly, "Polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum genes (XPC, XPD, and XPG) and susceptibility to acute leukemia among a sample of Egyptian patients", Journal of Hematopathology, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 3-7, 2017. polymorphisms_of_xeroderma_pigmentosum_genes.pdf
2016
Mahmoud, H. K., M. A. Samra, and G. M. Fathy, "Hematologic malignancies during pregnancy: A review.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 7, issue 4, pp. 589-96, 2016 Jul. Abstract

Malignancy is the second most common cause of mortality in the reproductive period and it complicates up to one out of every 1000 pregnancies. When cancer is diagnosed during pregnancy, the management approach must take into consideration both the mother and her fetus. Hematologic cancers diagnosed in pregnancy are not common, resulting in paucity of randomized controlled trials. Diagnosis of such malignancies may be missed or delayed, as their symptoms are similar to those encountered during normal pregnancy. Also, many imaging studies may be hazardous during pregnancy. Management of these malignancies during pregnancy induces many treatment-related risks for mother and baby and should consider patient's preferences for pregnancy continuation. In this article, hematologic malignancies diagnosed in pregnant patients including acute leukemias, chronic myeloid leukemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative neoplasms, will be reviewed, including diagnostic and management strategies and their impact on the pregnant patient and the developing fetus.

Sallam, Y. A., M. A. Samra, and A. A. Gaber, "Exploring the Clinicopathological Parameters Affecting the Outcome in Egyptian Patients with Multiple Myeloma.", The Gulf journal of oncology, vol. 1, issue 20, pp. 51-63, 2016 Jan. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell neoplasm in which the interplay of several clinical, pathological and genetic parameters affects the patient's prognosis and response to treatment and survival.

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the different clinicopathological parameters of MM patients in correlation with response to therapy, progressionfree survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on 60 MM patients diagnosed at NCI, Cairo University from January 2005 to December 2008. The patients were evaluated for different clinicopathological parameters which were correlated to their response to treatment, OS and PFS.

RESULTS: Sixty patients were followed up for a median period of 21 months wherein about 90% received 1st line treatment: 34 VAD, 17 MP and 3 dexamethasone. Six patients (10%) were referred for BSC. CR was achieved by 15%, 11.7% achieved good PR, 6.7% achieved PR, 22.1% have stable disease, 35% experienced disease progression. ECOG PS-I patients have 39 months median survival compared to 12 months for patients with PS ECOG-II (P 0.005). Patients with multiple skeletal lesions (≥3) have median OS of 19 months (P 0.03). Patients who presented with plasmacytoma have better OS than those without (38 months versus 14 months) (P<0.05). Patients <60 years old have a better median OS compared to patients <60 years (37 months versus 12 months) (P 0.001). OS was 39 months in female patients versus 14 months in male patients (P0.025). Median OS was 9 months for patients with comorbidities versus 27 months for those without (P0.01), 39 months for patients with non-detected paraproteinuria versus 18 months for those with paraproteinuria (P 0.045), 18 months for stage II disease versus 12 months for stage III disease (P0.001), 12 months for patients with elevated serum LDH versus 39 months for those with normal levels (P 0.001), 27 months for patients with normal serum creatinine level versus 13 months for those with elevated levels (>1.4 mg/dl) (P 0.005), 27 months for patients with normal serum calcium levels versus 10 months for those with hypercalcemia (P 0.03).

CONCLUSION: Besides FISH-guided molecular cytogenetic classification of myeloma abnormality, a specific risk-stratification model based upon the patient's age, sex, performance status, lytic bone lesions, plasma cells labeling index, serum creatinine, calcium, LDH, B2M and paraproteins in serum and urine, can depict the response to treatment, OS and PFS of patients with MM.

FATHY, G., A. El-Haddad, M. Abdel-Mooti, R. Abdelfattah, O. Fahmy, A. Sobhy, and H. Mahmoud, "Impact of HCV on the outcome of transplant of Fully Matched Sibling Donor PBSCs Transplantation for B- Thalassemia Major a single- center experience with 152 patients", BMT, vol. 51, issue S1, pp. S264– S265, 2016.
Fahmy, O., G. Fathy, A. M. Elhaddad, A. M. Sultan, S. Ibrahim, M. Bokhary, yasser el nahass, M. Talaat, R. M. S. Abdelfattah, M. Samra, et al., "The Impact of HCV Viremia on the Tempo of Engraftment and the Incidence of Acute and Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) As Well As Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (SOS): A Single Centre Experience of 332 Patients Following Allogeneic PBSCT", American Society of Hematology (ASH) 2016 Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, American Society of Hematology (ASH), pp. Abst. 5785, 2016.
Hassanein, S. M., Z. M. Elsayed, and M. A. Samra, "Lived experience among patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation: A single center experience", Journal of Nursing and Health Science, vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 16-26, 2016. lived_experience_among_patients_with_allogeneic_stem_cell_transplantation.pdf
Osman, N. F., W. M. Alzobary, M. A. Samra, H. H. Alsaid, and I. A. Eltounsi, "Lower Fas-associated phosphatase-1 expression predicted poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia patients.", Egyptian Journal of Haematology, vol. 41, issue 3, pp. 111-115, 2016.
yasser el nahass, H. Mahmoud, M. Mattar, O. Fahmy, M. Samra, R. Abdelfattah, H. Fahmy, and A. Abdelha, "Triple Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) Patients Show Low MPN10 Score and Lower Grades of Bone Marrow Fibrosis", Blood 2016, vol. 128, issue 22, pp. Abst. 5477, 2016.
2015
Mahmoud, H. K., A. M. Elhaddad, O. A. Fahmy, M. Samra, R. M. Abdelfattah, Y. H. El-Nahass, G. M. Fathy, and M. S. Abdelhady, "Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant hematological disorders.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 6, issue 3, pp. 449-58, 2015 May. Abstractallogeneic_hematopoietic_stem_cell_transplantation_for_non-malignant_hematological_disorders.pdf

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from a geno-identical matched sibling (MSD) is one of the most successful therapies in patients with non-malignant hematological disorders. This study included 273 patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), 152 patients with B-Thalassemia major (BTM), 31 patients with Fanconi's anemia (FA), 20 patients with congenital immunodeficiency diseases (ID), and 13 patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) allografted from a MSD. In SAA, the 8-year overall survival (OS) of the whole group patients was 74%. OS was significantly better in patients conditioned with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (Flu/Cy) than in those who received cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin (Cy/ATG) (p = 0.021). Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade II-IV occurred in 15% while chronic GVHD (cGVHD) occurred in 28%. In BTM, the 12-year disease-free survival (DFS) of the whole group of BTM patients was 72.4%. DFS was 74% for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) group compared to 64% in the BM stem cell group. The incidence of graft rejection was significantly lower in patients who received PBSC than in those who received BM (9% vs 25%) (p = 0.036). AGVHD grade II-IV and cGVHD occurred in 15% and 12% of the whole group of BTM patients respectively. In FA, the 5-year OS was 64.5%. Graft rejection occurred in 10% of patients. Grade II-IV aGVHD occurred in 16% while cGVHD occurred in 4%. In ID, the 5-year OS was 62%. Graft rejection occurred in two (10%) patients. Three patients (15%) developed grade II-IV aGVHD, 2 of them progressed to secondary cGVHD. In IMD, OS was 46% at 5 years. Graft rejection occurred in 8% of patients. AGVHD grade II-IV occurred in 15% while cGVHD occurred in 14%. In conclusion, Allo-HSCT provides a higher DFS rate over conventional therapies for patients with non-malignant hematological disorders with prolonged survival.

Sallam, Y. A., M. A. Samra, A. A. Shaheen, and M. E. Ahmed, "Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer: National Cancer Institute experience.", Clinical Cancer Investigation 2015, 4 (S1): p, vol. 4, issue S1, pp. S29: Abst P26, 2015.
2014
Elnahass, Y. H., M. M. Mattar, M. M. El-Kasas, A. M. Abdelhameed, M. H. Elazzazi, M. A. Samra, H. N. Elleithy, and W. H. Elmetnawy, "Impact of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) C3435T polymorphism on chronic myeloid leukemia response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors", Journal of Egyptian Society of Haematology and Research, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 39-44, 2014.
Samra, M. A., Y. Sallam, A. A. Gaber, and M. M. Saber, "Prognostic Factors in Multiple Myeloma: National Cancer Institute Experience", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 82, issue 1, pp. 505-515, 2014.
FATHY, G., R. Abdelfattah, A. Sobhy, M. Abdel-Mooti, O. Fahmy, and H. Mahmoud, "A Single Center Experience of Matched Sibling Donors PBSC Bone Marrow Transplantation for 31 Cases of Fanconi Anemia Using Low Dose Cyclophosphamide.", BMT, vol. 49, issue S1, pp. S195: Abst. PH- P198, 2014.
2013
Samra, M. A., H. K. Mahmoud, T. M. Abdelhamid, N. M. El Sharkawy, Y. H. Elnahass, M. Elgammal, R. M. Abdelfattah, S. Eid, F. M. Ghaleb, and A. M. Kamel, "The prognostic significance of minimal residual disease in adult Egyptian patients with precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 25, issue 3, pp. 135-42, 2013 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) studies in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) give highly significant prognostic information superior to other standard criteria as age, gender and total leucocytic count (TLC) in distinguishing patients at high and low risk of relapse.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the value of MRD monitoring by flowcytometry (FCM) in predicting outcome in adult Precursor ALL patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bone marrow (BM) samples were analyzed by 4-color FCM collected at diagnosis and after induction therapy (MRD1) to correlate MRD positivity with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

RESULTS: Study included 57 adult ALL patients (44 males and 13 females) with a median age of 22 years (18-49). DFS showed no significant difference with age, gender and initial TLC (p=0.838, 0.888 and 0.743, respectively). Cumulative DFS at 2 years was 34% for B-lineage ALL (n: 35) and 57% for T-lineage ALL (n: 18) (p = 0.057). Cumulative DFS at 2 years was 7% for MRD1 positive (high risk, HR) versus 57% for MRD1 negative patients (Low risk, LR) (p < 0.001). Cumulative DFS at 2 years was 29% for HR patients (n: 26) versus 55% for LR (n: 27) according to GMALL classification (p = 0.064). Cumulative OS did not differ according to age, gender and TLC (p = 0.526, 0.594 and 0.513, respectively). Cumulative OS at 2 years was 36% for B ALL (n: 39) versus 77% for TALL (n: 18) (p = 0.016) and was 49% for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) negative patients versus 0% for Ph-positive patients (p < 0.001). Regarding MRD1, OS at 2 years was 18% for MRD1 HR (n: 17) versus 65% for MRD1 LR (n: 38) (p < 0.001). OS was 35% for high-risk patients (n: 30) and 62% for low-risk patients (n: 27) classified according to GMALL risk stratification (p = 0.017).

CONCLUSION: MRD by FCM is a strong independent predictor of outcome in terms of DFS and OS and is a powerful informative parameter in guiding individual treatment in ALL patients.

El-Metnawy, W. H., M. M. Mervat, Y. H. El-Nahass, M. A. Samra, H. M. Abd El Hamid, R. M. Abdlfattah, and A. R. Hamed, "Predictive Value of Pretreatment BCR-ABL(IS) Transcript level on Response to Imatinib Therapy in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CPCML).", International journal of biomedical science : IJBS, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 48-53, 2013 Mar. Abstract

BACKGROUND: A wide range of responses of patients with CPCML to IM has been reported. Several factors were proposed to predict response including molecular response at 3 and 6 months.

PURPOSE: To study the impact of pretreatment BCR-ABL transcript level on molecular response to IM, and to assess the value of the milestone ; ≤10% transcript at 3 months on PFS and OS.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty five adult CP-CML patients receiving daily dose of 400 mg IM were subjected to molecular and cytogenetic analysis at diagnosis and at regular time intervals. Median follow up period was 36 months (15-48). Hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses were rated according to ELN.

RESULTS: Two Patient groups were distinguished regarding response to IM therapy. A group of 22/55 patients (40%) having pretreatment BCR-ABL(IS) level ≤200% and a second patient group 33/55 (60%) having transcript level >200%. The ≤10% milestone was achieved by 15/22 patients (68%) versus 7/33 patients (21%), p=0.04 in favor of the first group. Optimal responders in first group were 14/22 (64%) compared to 13/33 (39%) in second group, p=0.02. Achievement of 10% transcript level significantly correlated with longer PFS. The median BCR-ABL(IS) transcripts levels in optimal responders at 3, 6 and 18 months was 10%, 2% and 0.1%, respectively compared to 100%, 65% and 10%, in suboptimal/resistant patients p=0.001. Resistance in 11 patients was correlated with identifiable ABL Kinase mutations.

CONCLUSIONS: The Pretreatment 200% cutoff and the 3 month BCR-ABL(IS) ≤10% transcript levels proved strong predictors of response to IM and significantly correlated with probability of CCyR, MMR and PFS.

Saber, M. M., A. A. Zeeneldin, M. A. Samra, and S. A. Farag, "Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma in an Egyptian district: a study using a population-based cancer registry.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 25, issue 2, pp. 95-101, 2013 Jun. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal lymphoma (GIL) is the most common extranodal form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with geographical and age variation of its various subtypes.

AIM: To study GIL in Gharbiah, Egypt and to recognize the treatments employed and their outcomes including survival.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study. Between 2000 and 2002, 40 adult patients with GIL were identified in the Gharbiah population based cancer registry (GPBCR); 26 cases of whom were treated at Tanta Cancer Center (TCC).

RESULTS: GIL in Gharbiah, Egypt represented 6.2% of all GIT cancers. The median age was 47 years with slight male predominance. The commonest primary site was the stomach followed by the colon/rectum then the small intestine (67.5%, 25% and 7.5%, respectively). The commonest histological subtypes were the diffuse large B-cell (41.5%) followed by marginal zone B-cell (39%). The commonest symptoms were abdominal pains followed by vomiting. Only 18% of GILs were surgically resected. Most patients (77%) received chemotherapy with a 60% complete response (CR) rate. Once in CR, relapses are occasional. The median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were 31 and 14 months (95% CI, 13.2-48.7 and 6.4-21.6 months, respectively). Gastric primary site and diffuse large B cell subtype carry a non-significant worse OS and PFS than those of other sites and subtypes.

CONCLUSIONS: GILs in Gharbiah, Egypt are characterized by predominance of male gender, gastric site and marginal zone histology. Survival is worse for gastric and diffuse large B-cell GILs compared to other sites and histologies.

Mossallam, G., and M. Samra, "CTLA-4 polymorphism and clinical outcome post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.", Human immunology, vol. 74, issue 12, pp. 1643-8, 2013 Dec. Abstract

CTLA-4 inhibitory molecule plays an important role in regulating T cell activation. It is considered a crucial element in keeping the immune balance and has been implicated in cancer, autoimmunity and transplantation immunology. Inconsistent observations are reported regarding its association with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Genotyping of CTLA-4 was performed in recipients and their HLA-matched donors for +49A/G and CT60 polymorphisms (80 and 94 pairs, respectively) using PCR-RFLP. No association was encountered between both polymorphisms in patients and donors and acute or chronic graft versus host disease. Significant association was observed between recipient +49A/G G allele and lower disease-free survival and overall survival compared to AA genotype (HR: 2.17, p = 0.03, 95% CI: 1.05-4.48 and HR: 2.54, p = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.16-5.54), respectively. Our results suggest that CTLA-4 genotyping may predict outcome in patients post HSCT. To validate our results, further studies on a larger cohort are needed.

Elnahass, Y. H., H. K. Mahmoud, F. T. Ali, M. R. MOHAMED, M. M. Said, M. A. Samra, M. A. Ali, A. Salem, and W. H. Elmetnawy, "Abl Kinase Domain Mutations in Imatinib-treated Egyptian Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia", Journal of Leukemia, vol. 1, issue 1, 2013.
Talaat, A., N. Khattab, A. Tabl, and M. Samra, "Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Malignant Clone Disorder of Immature Hematopoietic Cells", Journal of Engineering Technology, vol. 1, pp. 32-41, 2013.
Kamel, A. M., G. I. Mossallam, S. S. Meshaal, D. Labib, R. Abdelfattah, M. A. Samra, M. Sherif, and O. Goher, "BCL-XL Expression as a Potential Prognostic Parameter In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.", Haematologica, vol. 98, issue S1, pp. 548: Abst. B1348, 2013.
Abdulla, S., T. Eladl, T. Talaat, N. Khattab, A. Tabl, M. Samra, and Y. Elnahas, "Clinical Applications of PML-RAR-α Transcript in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemic Adult Egyptians", Journal of American Science, vol. 9, issue 2, pp. 247-255, 2013.
Kamel, A. M., N. M. El-Sharkawy, S. S. Meshaal, D. A. Labib, M. M. Kamel, M. A. Samra, M. M. Sherif, and A. Omaima, "Expression of Phosphorylated STAT5 in chronic myeloid leukemia: relation to disease stages", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Hematology and Research, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 17-23, 2013.
Kamel, A. M., N. M. El-Sharkawy, E. M. AbdEl-Fattah, R. M. Abd El-Fattah, M. A. Samra, P. K. Wallace, and H. K. Mahmoud, "Interferon Gamma/IL10 Ratio Production in Response to Host Antigens may Predict Acute Graft Versus Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from a Sibling.", Journal of Leukemia, vol. 1, issue 2, 2013.
Saber, M. M., A. A. Bahnasy, H. M. El-Zawahry, N. M. Allahloubi, M. A. El-Moetii, R. M. ABDELFATAH, said, and M. Ghareeb, "Assessment of circulating tumor cells (CTC) by RT/PCR as a surrogate marker for PFS in metastatic breast cancer (MBC)", Cancer Res , vol. 73, issue 24 Suppl., pp. Abst. P1-04-10., 2013.
2012
2011
Abdelhamid, T., M. Samra, H. Ramadan, M. Mehessin, and N. Mokhtar, "Clinical prognostic factors of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective study.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 17-24, 2011 Mar. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of NHL in Egypt. It represents about 49% of NHL presenting to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University. CHOP regimen is the standard treatment used for NHL since the 1970s with only 30-40% overall survival. Recently, integration of Rituximab became a standard of care for patients with DLBCL. However, its widespread use in developing countries is still limited by the lack of financial coverage. Clinical prognostic factors, as well as the pathological markers, are mandatory to individualize treatment.

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical risk stratification models including the age adjusted International prognostic index (aaIPI), patients profile and dose intensity (DI) of Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin as effective tools for predicting the outcome and prognosis of our DLBCL patients treated with first line CHOP regimen.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 224 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma who were treated with 3-8 cycles of CHOP regimen at the Medical Oncology Department, NCI, Cairo University during the time period from 1999 to 2006.

RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients (79.5%) achieved CR after the CHOP regimen with an observation period of 51 months. The median survival time was 12 months. The OS and DFS at 2 years were 82% and 68.8%, respectively. The univariate analysis of predictive factors for response to treatment showed that the CR rate was significantly affected by aa-IPI and its elements (performance status, stage & LDH), extranodal lesions and DI of Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin. The CR rate was 96.9%, 91.2%, 73.9% and 55.6% in cases with aa-IPI 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p<0.001) and it was 82.4%, 81.9% versus 50% in cases with no extranodal site, one extranodal site and two extranodal sites, respectively (p=0.01). As regard DI of Cyclophosphamide, with DI below or equal to the median (249 mg/m(2)/week) the CR rate was 69%, while with DI above the median the CR rate was 87.7% (p=0.001). For Doxorubicin, the CR rate was 72.3% with DI below or equal to the median (16.5 mg/m(2)/week), however, it was 86.6% with DI above the median (p=0.008). The OS rate was significantly affected by aa-IPI as it was 89.8% in cases of aa-IPI 0+1 versus 75.8% in those of aa-IPI 2+3 (p=0.03). DI of Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin significantly influenced the OS. The OS rate was 74% with DI of Doxorubicin below or equal to the median versus 96% in cases with DI above the median (p=0.02). For Cyclophosphamide the OS rate was 72.7% with DI below or equal to the median versus 96.3% in cases with DI above the median (p=0.01). The tumor bulk (with a median tumor size of 5 cm) affected the OS, which was 91.23% versus 86.8% in the tumor bulk less than and more than or equal to the median, respectively (p=0.05). By multivariate analysis of predictive factors for response to treatment, the CR rate was significantly affected by the number of extranodal sites and the clinical staging of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. However, OS rate was strongly associated with the bulk of the tumor and the clinical staging of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

CONCLUSION: DI of Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin is important in the future treatment regimen plan for DLBCL especially in high risk cases. In addition to aa-IPI and its elements, extra nodal sites and bulk of the tumor proved to be significant predictors and prognostic factors for DLBCL treatment outcome.

Khorshid, O., A. Diaa, M. A. E. Moaty, R. A. E. Fatah, I. E. Dessouki, M. A. E. Hamid, E. Elnoshokaty, G. E. Saied, T. Fouad, and S. Ramadan, "Clinical features and treatment outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated at cairo national cancer institute in egypt.", Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. e2011060, 2011. Abstract

The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated at National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo), in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median age at presentation was 29 years. Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%). Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49%) and 34% had a high risk score. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All evaluable patients were treated for induction with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and an anthracycline. The original AIDA treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with daunorubicin or doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarabine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. Five patients died before treatment initiation due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to infectious complications (n=2) and bleeding (n=1) and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to infection. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%), bleeding (18%) and differentiation syndrome (11%). All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy at a median time of 100 days. The 3-year OS was 89%. Two patients relapsed at 13 and 24 months, respectively. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin) may be a valid treatment option for APL in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk disease in our cohort, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

Kamel, A., N. El-Sharkawy, S. Meshaal, D. Labib, M. Kamel, R. Abdelfattah, M. Samra, M. Sherif, and O. Gohar, "Expression of Phosphorylated STAT5 In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Relation to Disease Stages.", Haematologica, vol. 96, issue S2, pp. 496: Abst. 1202, 2011.
2010
Mossallam, G., A. M. Kamel, S. S. Meshaal, D. A. Labib, R. M. Abdelfattah, M. A. Samra, M. M. Sherif, and O. A. Gohar, "Bcl-xL expression as a potential prognostic parameter in Chronic myeloid Leukemia.", The Journal of the Egyptian Society of Haematology and Research, vol. 6, issue 10, pp. 17-22, 2010.
Khairy, T., H. Elhossieny, and M. Abd Moaty, "A study evaluating the impact of nerve preserving surgery and adjuvant pelvic irradiation for rectal cancer on quality of life.", Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 9, issue 8, pp. 459-465., 2010.
2009
Mahmoud, H., Y. El Nahas, M. Abdel Moaty, R. Abdel Fattah, M. El Emary, and W. El Metnawy, "Kinetics of BCR-ABL Transcripts in Imatinib Mesylate treated Chronic Phase CML (CPCML), A Predictor of Response and Progression Free Survival.", International journal of biomedical science : IJBS, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 223-8, 2009 Sep. Abstract

PURPOSE: To assess the kinetics of molecular response to Imatinib Mesylate (IM) therapy in predicting progression free survival (PFS), sustained hematological, and cytogenetic responses in CPCML.

METHODS: Ninety five newly diagnosed CPCML Egyptian patients were treated with IM 400 mg daily dose. Cytogenetic analysis was performed at diagnosis and every 6 months. Molecular monitoring by RT-QPCR was performed at diagnosis and every 3 months during a median follow-up period (FUp) of 26 months. Mutation detection of ABL domain was performed by ASO-PCR.

RESULTS: Hematological response was 98% after three months of IM therapy. Out of 95 patients 59 showed 2 log reduction of BCR-ABL/ABL ratio after 6 months of whom 49 (83%) had complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and 42 (71%) had major molecular response (MMR) at 12 months. BCR-ABL transcripts remained undetectable in 22 patients (39%) at 26 months. Among the remaining 34 patients not achieving 2 log reduction at 6 months only 5 (15%) had CCyR and MMR by 12 months. ABL domain mutations were detected in 11/15 (73%) resistant and suboptimal responding patients. Achieving 2 log reduction after 6 months of IM therapy significantly correlated with sustained cytogenetic and molecular responses (p<0.0001), with PFS at 2 years (p<0.03) and inversely with ABL gene mutations (p<0.001).

DISCUSSION: These data demonstrated the predictive value of early molecular response to IM in CPCML regarding disease course and PFS. A 2 log reduction at 6 months of IM treatment could be a cut off level predicting resistance, CCyR, or suggesting IM dose modification.

Mahmoud, H. K., Y. H. El Nahas, M. A. Samra, R. M. Abdelfattah, M. A. ElEmary, and W. H. El-Metnawy, "Kinetics Of BCR-ABL Transcripts In Patients with Chronic Phase CML (CML-CP) Treated With Imatinib Mesylate (Im): A Predictor Of Response And Progression Free Survival (PFS)", Haematologica, vol. 94, issue S2, pp. 573: Abst 1473., 2009.
Samra, M., M. Kamel, M. Elsharkawy, M. AbdElFatah, M. Ghaleb, M. Kamel, T. Abdel Hamid, and M. Elemary, "The Prognostic Significance of Minimal Residual Disease in Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.", Haematologica, vol. 94, issue Suppl.2, pp. 564: Abst. 1445, 2009.
H.K., M., A. M. Elhadad, O. Fahmy, M. Elemary, M. Abdel-Mooti, R. Abdelfattah, A. Sobhy, Y. El-Nahass, and G. FATHY, "Therapeutic choices in patients with Ph-positive CML: SCT Vs TKI?", Pan Arab Journal of Oncology, vol. 2, issue 2, pp. 35-36: Abst. A10., 2009.
2008
Abdelsalam, M., A. El Sissy, M. A. Samra, S. Ibrahim, D. El Markaby, and F. Gadallah, "The impact of trisomy 12, retinoblastoma gene and P53 in prognosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.", Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 13, issue 3, pp. 147-53, 2008 Jun. Abstract

PURPOSE: Routine cytogenetic analysis frequently fails to identify an abnormal clone in B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) due to poor response to mitogen stimulation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggest that chromosomal abnormalities occur more frequently, most commonly trisomy 12, retinoblastoma gene deletion (Rb1 gene) and P53 gene deletion.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: 30 patients with B-CLL were enrolled in the trial from two centers in Cairo, Egypt during the period May 2000 to January 2002. Karyotyping and FISH assessment for possible chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 12, Rb1 gene and P53 gene) were done at initial diagnosis. Results of cytogenetic abnormalities were correlated with clinical picture and survival.

RESULTS: The median age was 57.4 years (range 40-75). Karyotyping technique showed that no metaphase could be detected in 30%, metaphase with normal karyotyping was observed in 63% and cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in two cases (one trisomy 12 and one deletion in chromosome 13). FISH examination of interphase and metaphase nuclei revealed cytogenetic abnormalities in 15 cases (50%), trisomy 12 in 9 (30%), Rb1 gene deletion in 5 (17%) and P53 gene deletion in 3. At diagnosis, patients with trisomy 12 were significantly associated with advanced stage and absolute lymphocyte count of >or=30,000/mm(3). Univariate analysis showed that absolute lymphocyte count >or=30,000/mm(3) (p=0.004) and trisomy 12 (p=0.024) were associated with poor progression free survival.

CONCLUSION: Interphase and metaphase FISH studies improve the cytogenetic diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in B-CLL. Lymphocytosis and trisomy 12 may be a good indicator of poor prognosis.

Mahmoud, H. K., A. El-Haddad, O. Fahmy, M. El-Emary, A. Nassar, M. Abdel-Mooti, A. Sobhy, and A. Sultan, "Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Egypt.", Bone marrow transplantation, vol. 42 Suppl 1, pp. S76-S80, 2008 Aug. Abstract

Hematopoietic SCT is now an established treatment modality with definitive indications for many hematological disorders. However, this line of treatment requires tremendous resources, and it becomes increasingly difficult for transplanters practicing in the developing world to reconcile the difference between what is possible and what is available. On the basis of 18 years of experience and more than 1300 transplants, this article will focus on special issues, which we think are important for hematopoietic SCT practices in developing countries, taking the program in Egypt as an example that may be applicable to other countries in the developing world. The SCT program in Egypt started in 1989 on a narrow scale. In 1997, the transplant rate increased dramatically with the opening of the SCT unit at the Nasser Institute. Our team is registered in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. The total number of transplants performed till June 2007 is 1362; 80% of the cases are allogeneic and 20% autologous. There are seven other centers in Egypt performing mainly autologous transplants.

Kamel, H., Y. El-Nahas, M. AbdelMoaty, R. Abdelfattah, M. Elemary, and W. ElMetnawy, "Sequential Molecular Monitoring of Patients with Chronic Phase Myelogenous Leukemia During Imatinib Mesylate Treatment. Clinical Significance and Predictive Value.", Haematologica , vol. 93, issue S1, pp. 222: Abst. 0548, 2008.
2007
El-Zawahry, H. E. B. A. M., A. A. Zeeneldin, M. O. H. A. M. E. D. A. Samra, M. M. Mattar, M. M. El-Gammal, A. Abd El-Samee, and T. Darwish, "Cost and outcome of treatment of adults with acute myeloid leukemia at the National Cancer Institute-Egypt.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 19, issue 2, pp. 106-13, 2007 Jun. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the majority of patients die of their disease, unless bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is done. Infection and hemorrhage are still the major causes of mortality in AML patients. Progress in therapy and supportive care has led to gradual improvement in the overall results, but further improvements are still needed.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of this study is to identify the outcome and costs of adult AML patients treated with conventional chemotherapy (CCT) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University during the time period from April 1999 to January 2002. Clinical, laboratory characteristics were all recorded. Data regarding different types of therapies given for these patients including response, outcome and costs were also collected.

RESULTS: The median age of 82 identified AML patients was 34 years. The complete remission (CR) rate after induction with CCT was 52% (42/82 patients) with a median CR duration of 9 months. Twenty-eight percent of patients who achieved CR subsequently relapsed. By January 2003, fifty-eight patients were dead (70.7%). Infections were the major mortality cause, followed by disease progression then bleeding (65% , 28% and 7% respectively). The median treatment cost per patient was 33158 Egyptian Pounds (LE). It was higher for patients who achieved CR compared to those who relapsed and/or died. Drugs contributed by 78 % to the total treatment cost, while hospitalization, investigations and blood-component therapy contributed by 6%, 7% and 8% respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Outcome of patients with AML treated at NCI- Cairo University can be enhanced by improvement of supportive therapy; mainly infection control and expanding BMT programs to accommodate all eligible patients.

S., W., M. Samra, and M. O. H. A. M. E. D. FAWZY, "Presence of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in egyptian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.", International journal of health sciences, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 11-6, 2007 Jan. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although no definite risk factors have emerged for the different hematological malignancies, a viral cause has been postulated. Several studies have detected SV40 DNA sequences in tumor tissues obtained from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. A link between SV40 and NHL is biologically plausible because SV40 causes hematological malignancies in laboratory rodents.

METHODS: We investigated 266 Egyptian cases of different hematological malignancies, for the presence of SV40 DNA using multiplex nested PCR technique. These cases consisted of 158 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 54 Hodgkin's disease(HD), 26 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 13 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 8 chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL), 7 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), in addition to 34 subjects of control group.

RESULTS: Our results have shown that SV40 DNA sequences were found in 53.8% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients, 29.6% of Hodgkin's disease patients, and 40.7% of different types of leukemia cases. Frequency of SV40 DNA sequences was higher in NHL patients compared to the other tumor cases. Also, frequency of SV40 DNA sequences was significantly higher (p<0.05) in NHL patients than in the control group. Regarding the different histological types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, SV40 DNA sequences were detected frequently in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in follicular lymphoma.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that SV40 DNA virus is significantly associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and might have a role in the development of these hematological malignancies. Polyomavirus SV40 may act as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of these tumors and this could lead to new diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.

Mohamed, W. S., M. Samra, M. A. Fawzy, and I. M. Fakhr, "Lack of Evidence for The Role of BK and JC Polyoma Viruses in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma", Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 16, issue 3, pp. 455-460, 2007.
2006
Mossallam, G. I., T. M. Abdelhamid, and M. A. Samra, "Glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in adult acute myeloid leukemia; its impact on toxicity and response to chemotherapy.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 18, issue 3, pp. 264-73, 2006 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heterogeneity in patient' s response to chemotherapy is consistently observed across populations. Pharmacogenomics, the study of inherited differences in drug disposition and effects, is emerging as a tool to predict efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of environmental carcinogens and some classes of chemotherapeutics. Polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1, in the form of homozygous deletion, is encountered in varying frequencies in normal population. It has been associated with altered response and toxicity from cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on response and side effects of chemotherapy in adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. Correlations between these genetic polymorphisms and other prognostic factors were also investigated.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped GSTM1 and GSTT1 in 98 adult AML patients using multiplex PCR. Induction therapy included Doxorubicin and Cytosine arabinoside (3+7) regimen. Treatment outcomes were compared in those with or without GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes.

RESULTS: The frequencies of GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes were 56% and 14%, respectively. Six percent (6%) were double null. The rate of toxic death during induction was 3/7 (43%) and 17/56 (30%) in GSTT1 null and GSTT1 present patients, respectively, p=0.67. This constituted 75% and 42% of total deaths in each group, respectively, p=0.31. Differences were not statistically significant. On the other hand, the rate of complete remission (CR) in patients with GSTM1 present compared to those with GSTM1 null genotype was 12/27 (48%) versus 23/36 (64%), p=0.21. GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with lymphoid marker (mainly CD7) expression (p=0.03), known with its adverse effect on prognosis. Overall survival and disease-free survival were similar in patients with and without the genes. No significant associations were encountered between GST genotypes and treatment outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest possible association, though not significant, between GSTT1 null genotype and toxic death during induction and between GSTM1 present genotype and lower rate of CR. Studies on larger numbers are needed focusing on selection of anticancer agents to avoid adverse reactions and therapeutic failure, with special emphasis on drug toxicity and dose adjustment.

Mahmoud, H. K., M. El-Emary, H. K. Nazier, A. El-Haddad, O. Fahmy, N. El-Sayed, M. AbdMooti, A. Nasser, A. Sobhy, and Y. El-Nahass, "Imatinib mesylate (STI571) in CML patients after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation", BMT, vol. 37, issue S1, pp. S231: Poster P850, 2006.
2005
2004
Zekri, A. R., W. Mohamed, M. Samra, G. Sherif, A. El-Shehaby, and M. El-Sayed, "Risk factors for cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C virus reactivation after bone marrow transplantation.", Transplant immunology, vol. 13, issue 4, pp. 305-11, 2004 Dec. Abstract

To derive guidelines for a safer bone marrow transplantation (BMT) policy, we have to study pre-BMT risk factors that may be associated with an increased post-BMT death. Among those factors, the importance of pre-BMT viral hepatitis markers in BMT donors and recipients remains unsettled. In the present study, we have determined the effect of prior donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure on the incidence of those viral infections after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The study included 63 patients presented to the BMT unit; 28 of them underwent transplantation and 35 were not transplanted. All serum markers of CMV, HBV, and HCV infections were monitored using ELISA technique, as well as PCR-DNA for CMV, HBV and HCV RT-PCR techniques for HCV. The incidence of active CMV and HCV was 11/28 (39%) and 6/28 (21%) in post-BMT recipients compared to 2/35 (6%) and 2/35 (6%) in the 35 untransplanted patients (P=0.00003 and P=0.05). Whereas active HBV infection was non significantly (P=0.13) higher 3/28 (11%) in the BMT patients in comparison to 1/35 (3%) in untransplanted patients. Ten out of the 19 (53%) of the CMV-seropositive recipients developed CMV reactivation compared to 1/9 (11%) of the CMV-seronegative recipients who developed CMV seroconversion. In addition, 3/8 (38%) of the HBV-seropositive recipients developed HBV reactivation in comparison to 0/20 of the HBV-seronegative recipients. Moreover, 5/13 (39%) of the HCV-seropositive recipients developed HCV reactivation in comparison to 1/16 (6%) of the HCV-seronegative recipients who developed HCV seroconversion. In conclusion, previous exposure to CMV, HBV, and HCV infections in the recipients of BMT patients were found to influence the risk of developing those viral infections.

Morsi, A., H. A. Kamel, G. Emira, O. M. A. R. Z. Youssef, A. I. El-Khodary, A. M. Kamel, R. M. Gaafar, and M. Abdelmooti, "High-dose Chemotherapy Versus Conventional-Dose Chemotherapy as an Adjuvant Treatment after Mastectomy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial.", The Medical Journal of Cairo University,, vol. 72, issue 2 (Suppl. II), pp. 147-153, 2004.
Khattab, N. F., O. F. Abdelrahman, A. Sobhy, M. Elemary, and M. A. Samra, "The influence of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcome of both myeloablative and non-myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. ", Egyptian Journal of Haematology, vol. 29, issue 3, pp. 457-474, 2004.
2003
Fahmy, O., H. K. Mahmoud, A. Haddad, S. ElBadrawy, A. Kamel, H. Sedky, S. AbdelLatif, M. AbdelMoaty, undefined, A. Sobhy, et al., "HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: THE NASSER INSTITUTE EXPERIENCE", Egyptian Journal of Haematology, vol. 28, issue 4S, pp. 1001-1018, 2003.
2001
Fahmy, O., H. K. Mahmoud, A. Haddad, S. ElBadawy, A. Kamel, H. Sedky, S. AbdelLatif, M. AbdelMoaty, and R. Abdelfattah, "An improved outcome of acute GVHD following non-myeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.", Blood, vol. 98, issue 11, pp. 356b, 2001.