Farid, S., "Development of Therapeutic Giuidelines", Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy: Elsevier, 2019.
Ali, A., S. Farid, M. Amin, M. Kassem, and N. Al-Garem, "Clinical study on the therapeutic role of midodrine in non azotemic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.", Hepato-gastroenterology, vol. 61, issue 135, pp. 1915-24, 2014. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Midodrine is an α-agonist prodrug of desglymidodrine used for the management of hypotension. Midodrine has demonstrated usefulness in hepatorenal syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to study the role of midodrine in patients with non-azotemic cirrhosis with tense ascites.

METHODS: This prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study was conducted on 67 non azotemic inpatients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites (52 men and 15 women; age range, 45-72). One patient declined to participate in the study, 33 patients were randomly assigned to take midodrine hydrochloride, and 33 patients were randomly assigned to take placebo. Out of 67 enrolled patients, 60 patients (30: in midodrine group; 30: in placebo group) completed the study and 6 patients lost to follow up. Patients were assessed for patients’ characteristics, history of tapping their ascetic fluid, laboratory values, and Doppler parameters before and after the study. Average 24-h urine volume was assessed before and after the start of the study.

RESULTS: significant reduction in body weight and abdominal girth was observed after 2 weeks of midodrine therapy.

CONCLUSION: Midodrine appeared to be effective in lowering body weights and abdominal girths of non azotemic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites.

Sabry, N. A., and S. F. Farid, "The role of clinical pharmacists as perceived by Egyptian physicians.", The International journal of pharmacy practice, vol. 22, issue 5, pp. 354-9, 2014. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Clinical pharmacists play an important role in ensuring the safe and rational use of medicines; however, physicians in developing countries may not always recognize the wide scope of services that a pharmacist can provide to improve patient safety and achieve clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions and experience of physicians regarding the role of the pharmacists, the pharmacists' ability to perform clinical services, their acceptance of new pharmacist roles and the extent of collaboration that can occur between the two disciplines.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, 583 randomly selected physicians from the Grand Cairo area were invited to complete a survey composed of 25 questions designed to determine their perceptions of the role of clinical pharmacists.

KEY FINDINGS: The response rate was 53%. Of the 312 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 50.5% reported direct contact with the pharmacists using the pharmacist as a source of information about the name of the medication, side effects, drug interactions or efficacy as the main role. About one-third believed that pharmacists could be a reliable source of clinical information, identify clinically related problems or advise the physicians about medication's cost effectiveness. More than 80% agreed that physicians and clinical pharmacists should have daily cooperation, and face-to-face contact was selected to be the best method of communication.

CONCLUSION: Although a wide proportion of the physicians were aware of the clinical pharmacy principle, the service itself is not well promoted or applied. Greater effort needs to be directed towards increasing physicians' awareness and knowledge of the importance of clinical pharmacist and promote the benefit of the clinical pharmacy service.

Sabry, N. A., S. F. Farid, and D. M. Dawoud, "Antibiotic dispensing in Egyptian community pharmacies: an observational study.", Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 168-84, 2014. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are commonly dispensed medications from community pharmacies, and they are frequently prescribed for inappropriate indications. In many countries, they are easily accessible without prescriptions. The inappropriate use of antibiotics results in the emergence of resistant bacterial strains, which represents a considerable public health problem, particularly in developing countries.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the pattern of antibiotics dispensing from Egyptian community pharmacies and to collect baseline descriptive data on the antibiotics dispensed and their appropriateness.

METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study of antibiotic dispensing encounters was conducted at 36 randomly selected pharmacies in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Data were collected during one shift at each pharmacy. Structured questionnaires recording patient demographics, antibiotics dispensed and reasons for dispensing were completed for each antibiotic dispensing encounter. The data were descriptively analysed.

RESULTS: Overall, 1158 antibiotics were dispensed during the study period with a total cost of L.E. 24,487 (approximately 3,673 $USD). While self-medication and purchasing without medical prescriptions were common, representing around 23.3% of the antibiotics (n = 270), most antibiotics were prescribed by a doctor or dentist (n = 736, 63.6%). Pharmacist recommendations accounted for the remainder (n = 152, 13.1%). The main reasons for antibiotic use were respiratory tract ailments and gastroenteritis symptoms. The antibiotics most commonly dispensed were: penicillins, erythromycin, metronidazole, neomycin, clotrimoxazole and tetracyclines. Approximately 70% of the antibiotics dispensed on prescriptions were judged to be appropriate for the indications while this percentage was around 61% for antibiotics dispensed on pharmacist recommendation and patient's request.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that antibiotics are frequently dispensed from community pharmacies in Egypt without appropriate prescriptions and for inappropriate indications. These findings support the need for strict enforcement of pharmacy laws through improved inspection processes. They highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines and educational interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing and dispensing practices.

Mohammed Saif, M., S. F. Farid, S. A. Khaleel, N. A. Sabry, and M. H. El-Sayed, "Hepatoprotective efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in pediatrics acute lymphoblastic leukemia.", Pediatric hematology and oncology, vol. 29, issue 7, pp. 627-32, 2012. Abstract

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) possesses a hepatoprotective effect in drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In a prospective randomized parallel study, 39 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were randomized to receive UDCA with chemotherapy for 6 months, then discontinued UDCA and were followed up for 3 months, (UDCA group) (N = 19) or receive chemotherapy without UDCA and followed up for 9 months (control group) (N = 20). In this pilot study, UDCA treatment was associated with a trend toward decreased levels of hepatic transaminases when concomitantly administered with chemotherapy and, therefore, safer outcome in children with ALL. Future studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of UDCA in this setting.

Zaki, A. A., and S. F. Farid, "Subconjunctival bevacizumab for corneal neovascularization.", Acta ophthalmologica, vol. 88, issue 8, pp. 868-71, 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: This work aimed to study and evaluate the effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab injection in patients with corneal neovascularization (CNV) resulting from different ocular surface disorders.

METHODS: Ten eyes with CNV caused by different ocular surface disorders were studied. All eyes had both major and minor vessel CNV caused by factors such as healed corneal ulcers, long-standing chronic inflammatory diseases and corneal ischaemia (caused by contact lenses). All eyes received a single subconjunctival injection of 2.5mg (0.1ml) bevacizumab. Morphological changes in the major and minor vessels were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and corneal photography.

RESULTS: Conspicuous recession of the minor vessels of CNV was observed in all eyes at 2 weeks post-injection. The extent of CNV of the major vessels was significantly decreased at 2 weeks post-injection. The level of CNV continued to decrease noticeably for 3 months and then stabilized for the remainder of the 6-month follow-up period. Parameters used for evaluation included the total area of CNV, which amounted to 14.0 ± 5.4% of the corneal surface pre-injection, compared with 9.4 ± 3.9% post-injection (p < 0.01), reflecting a mean decrease in CNV of 33 ± 8%, and the extent of neovascularization, which decreased from 4.3 ± 1.5 clock hours pre-injection to 2.4 ± 1.1 clock hours post-injection (p <0.01). During the 6-month follow-up, none of the 10 eyes showed any complication that could be related to subconjunctival bevacizumab injection.

CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab can be used safely and effectively for CNV resulting from different ocular surface disorders. It represents an effective treatment for minor vessel neovascularization caused by long-standing chronic inflammation (e.g. trachoma) or long-standing corneal ischaemia (e.g. contact lenses), as well as for major vessel neovascularization resulting from different causes. Bevacizumab was well tolerated over the 6-month follow-up period.

Ahmed, I. S., M. H. Aboul-Einien, O. H. Mohamed, and S. F. Farid, "Relative bioavailability of griseofulvin lyophilized dry emulsion tablet vs. immediate release tablet: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, six-period, crossover study in healthy adult volunteers in the fasted and fed states.", European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 35, issue 3, pp. 219-25, 2008. Abstract

The oral bioavailability of griseofulvin (GF) formulated as a fast disintegrating lyophilized dry emulsion (LDE) tablet was studied and compared to the commercially available immediate release (IR) tablet, as a reference, in both the fasted and fed states in nine healthy volunteers after a single oral dose (125 mg) in a crossover design. Furthermore the LDE tablets were ingested with and without water under both the fasted and fed states. In the fasted state, the rate of absorption was found to be significantly faster from LDE tablets, in the presence and absence of water, as shown by a higher C(max) (more than two times higher, p=0.0001) and a shorter t(max) (by more than 3h, p=0.0001) compared to IR tablets. The extent of absorption, expressed as AUC, from LDE tablets in the presence and absence of water was 65% and 77% larger and statistically significantly different relative to the mean AUC from IR tablets (p=0.006). In the fed state, C(max) from LDE tablets ingested with and without water was found to be about 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than the immediate release tablets. A shorter t(max) was also shown whether LDE tablets were ingested with or without water in the fed state as compared to immediate release tablets. The mean AUC from LDE tablets under fed conditions in the presence of water was about 21% larger and was not statistically significantly different from AUC from immediate release tablets (p=0.517). When ingested without water, AUC from LDE tablets was about 43% larger and statistically significantly different relative to AUC from IR tablets (p=0.033). The mean AUC from the LDE tablet ingested with water under fed conditions relative to AUC from LDE tablet ingested without water was not statistically significantly different (p=0.454). Results show that the food effect of the high fat meal is very pronounced in case of the immediate release tablets, Fulvin, than in case of LDE tablets whether given with or without water.

Abdel Magid, A. M., M. M. Abbassi, E. E. M. Iskander, O. Mohamady, and S. F. Farid, "Randomized comparative efficacy and safety study of intermittent simvastatin versus fenofibrate in hemodialysis.", Journal of comparative effectiveness research, vol. 6, issue 5, pp. 413-424, 2017. Abstract

AIM: Compare the safety and efficacy of intermittent fenofibrate versus simvastatin in chronic hemodialysis patients.

PATIENTS & METHODS: Sixty patients received either fenofibrate 100 mg or simvastatin 20 mg after their dialysis session (parallel study). The safety and efficacy of drugs on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), glutathione peroxidase and C-reactive protein were compared before and after 16-week treatment.

RESULTS: After treatment, significant increase in glutathione peroxidase, significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and ox-LDL (p < 0.05) and no significant changes in C-reactive protein (p > 0.05) were observed in both groups. Both drugs were well tolerated with no serious side effects reported by the patients.

CONCLUSION: Both drugs have comparable efficacy and safety when used as intermittent low dose regimen in hemodialysis. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm our new findings.

Kamel, A. M., S. F. Farid, A. S. Attia, and M. E. Raziky, "Association of vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms with response to therapy in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.", Journal of infection in developing countries, vol. 11, issue 10, pp. 781-790, 2017. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is a potential modulator of immune response and is associated with clinical progression of many diseases. Our aim was to assess influence of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and VDBP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4588 (C > A) and rs7041 (G > T), on baseline clinical parameters and response to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

METHODOLOGY: Genotyping was performed by RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) in 112 treatment naïve hepatitis C patients and 50 healthy controls. Vitamin D levels were assessed by ELISA. HCV RNA quantification was performed by PCR to assess therapy outcome.

RESULTS: Patients with VDBP WT+ diplotype (3 or 4 VDBP major alleles) had higher viral response rates at weeks 12, 48, and 72 (p = 0.046, 0.034 and 0.029, respectively) and lower base line viral load (p = 0.016). Multivariate logistic regression identified VDBP WT+ diplotype as an independent predictor of sustained viral response (SVR; p = 0.014, RR = 4.716, 95% CI = 1.371 - 16.609). Interestingly, WT- diplotype (less than 3 VDBP major alleles) was associated with significant liver fibrosis (p = 0.045).

CONCLUSIONS: VDBP WT+ diplotype is associated with lower baseline viral load and better therapy outcome in HCV treatment naïve patients. The rs4588 genotype is associated with SVR in the Egyptian population.

Sabry, N., S. Farid, and D. Dawoud, "Drug-related problems in cardiac children", Minerva pediatrica , vol. 68, issue 2, pp. 89-95, 2016.
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