Bisoprolol

Elzanfaly, E. S., S. A. Hassan, M. Y. Salem, and B. A. El-Zeany, "Continuous Wavelet Transform, a powerful alternative to Derivative Spectrophotometry in analysis of binary and ternary mixtures: A comparative study", Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 151: Elsevier, pp. 945-955, 2015. AbstractAbstract.pdfWebsite

A comparative study was established between two signal processing techniques showing the theoretical
algorithm for each method and making a comparison between them to indicate the advantages and
limitations. The methods under study are Numerical Differentiation (ND) and Continuous Wavelet
Transform (CWT). These methods were studied as spectrophotometric resolution tools for simultaneous
analysis of binary and ternary mixtures. To present the comparison, the two methods were applied for
the resolution of Bisoprolol (BIS) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in their binary mixture and for the
analysis of Amlodipine (AML), Aliskiren (ALI) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) as an example for ternary
mixtures. By comparing the results in laboratory prepared mixtures, it was proven that CWT technique
is more efficient and advantageous in analysis of mixtures with severe overlapped spectra than ND.
The CWT was applied for quantitative determination of the drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations
and validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness
were found to be within the acceptable limit.

Elzanfaly, E. S., S. A. Hassan, M. Y. Salem, and B. A. El-Zeany, "Different signal processing techniques of ratio spectra for spectrophotometric resolution of binary mixture of bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide; a comparative study", Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 140: Elsevier, pp. 334-343, 2015. AbstractAbstract.pdfWebsite

Five signal processing techniques were applied to ratio spectra for quantitative determination of bisoprolol
(BIS) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in their binary mixture. The proposed techniques are Numerical
Differentiation of Ratio Spectra (ND-RS), Savitsky–Golay of Ratio Spectra (SG-RS), Continuous Wavelet
Transform of Ratio Spectra (CWT-RS), Mean Centering of Ratio Spectra (MC-RS) and Discrete Fourier
Transform of Ratio Spectra (DFT-RS). The linearity of the proposed methods was investigated in the range
of 2–40 and 1–22 lg/mL for BIS and HCT, respectively. The proposed methods were applied successfully
for the determination of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and in commercial pharmaceutical
preparations and standard deviation was less than 1.5. The five signal processing techniques were compared to each other and validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability
and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limit.

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