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Saleem, S. N., "Feasibility of MRI of the fetal heart with balanced steady-state free precession sequence along fetal body and cardiac planes", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 191, no. 4: Am Roentgen Ray Soc, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Feasibility of MRI of the fetal heart with balanced steady-state free precession sequence along fetal body and cardiac planes", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 191, no. 4: Am Roentgen Ray Soc, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. Abstract
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Abdel‐Salam, G. M. H., M. S. Abdel‐Hamid, H. A. El‐Khayat, O. M. Eid, S. Saba, M. K. Farag, S. N. Saleem, and K. Gaber, "Fetal brain disruption sequence versus fetal brain arrest: A distinct autosomal recessive developmental brain malformation phenotype", American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, vol. 167, issue 5, pp. 1089-1099, 2015.
SN, S., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography - New Techniques: InTech, 2012. CU-PDF
Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography-New, 2012. Abstract

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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A Tool for a Better Understanding of Normal and Abnormal Brain Development.", Journal of Child Neurology , issue 13(7), pp. 889-907 , 2013. Abstractsaleem_journal_of_child_neurology_2013.pdf

Knowledge of the anatomy of the developing fetal brain is essential to detect abnormalities and understand their pathogenesis. Capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the brain in utero and to differentiate between its various tissues makes fetal MRI a potential diagnostic and research tool for the developing brain. This article provides an approach to understand the normal and abnormal brain development through schematic interpretation of fetal brain MR images. MRI is a potential screening tool in the second trimester of pregnancies in fetuses at risk for brain anomalies and helps in describing new brain syndromes with in utero presentation. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps genetic counseling, facilitates management decisions, and guides therapy. Fetal MRI can help in better understanding the pathogenesis of fetal brain malformations and can support research that could lead to disease-specific interventions.

Saleem, S. N., A. H. Said, M. Abdel-Raouf, E. A. El-Kattan, M. S. Zaki, N. Madkour, and M. Shokry, "Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision", Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 11: Springer, pp. 761–772, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., A. H. Said, M. Abdel-Raouf, E. A. El-Kattan, M. S. Zaki, N. Madkour, and M. Shokry, "Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision", Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 11: Springer, pp. 761–772, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal MRI: An approach to practice", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, issue 5, pp. 507-523, 2014. Abstractjar_2013_article.pdf

MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state freeprecession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies.

Abdel-Salam, G. M. H., H. H. Afifi, S. N. Saleem, M. I. Gadelhak, M. A. El-Serafy, I. S. M. Sayed, and M. S. Abdel-Hamid, "Further Evidence of a Continuum in the Clinical Spectrum of Dominant -Related Disorders and Implications in Cerebellar Anomalies.", Molecular syndromology, vol. 13, issue 5, pp. 389-396, 2022. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Pathogenic variants in the PIEZO family member 2 () gene are known to cause Gordon syndrome (GS), Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS), and distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5). Out of these, MWS has a recognizable phenotype that can be discerned easily, but the distinction between GS and DA5 is less evident. Few children with pathogenic variants have been reported to show posterior fossa anomalies.

METHODS AND RESULTS: By candidate gene targeting guided by proper clinical evaluation and neuroimaging findings, a patient with classic MWS harboring a de novo novel variant (c.8237G>A, p.W2746*) in the C-terminal region of PIEZO2 was identified. In addition, another girl with the typical clinical features of GS is also described carrying the most prevalent reported variant (c.8057G>A, p.R2686H) in . The brain MRI of the 2 patients showed Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM). Diffusion tensor imaging visualized anteroposterior and downward aligned thin middle cerebellar peduncle. The association of DWM with arthrogryposis in the presence of variants remains quite interesting and provides more evidence that PIEZO2 plays a role in the development of hindbrain although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Moreover, the 2 girls had distinct foot patterning in the form of shortening of the first and fifth toes.

CONCLUSION: Phenotype analysis and a comprehensive review of the literature strongly support the previously published data and corroborate the evidence that heterozygous related disorders represent a continuum with overlapping phenotypic features.

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