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Said, A. H., E. El-Kattan, M. S. Abdel-Hakeem, and H. A. El-Khayat, "In utero MRI diagnosis of fetal malformations in oligohydramnios pregnancies", EJRNM, vol. 47, issue 4, pp. 1733-1742, 2016. oligo_ejrnm_2016.pdf
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Computed tomography study of the feet of mummy of Ramesses III: New insights on the Harem Conspiracy", J Comput Assist Tomogr , vol. Sept , issue 41, pp. 15-17, 2017.
Saleem, S. N., and M. S. Zaki, "Role of MR imaging in prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk for Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders", American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 31, no. 3: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 424–429, 2010. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Royal Egyptian mummies of 18th-20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies", Arthritis and Rheumatology , vol. 66, issue 12, pp. 3311-3316, 2014.
Saleem, S. N., "MR Imaging Diagnosis of Uterovaginal Anomalies: Current State of the Art1", Radiographics, vol. 23, no. 5: Radiological Society of North America, pp. e13–e13, 2003. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A Tool for a Better Understanding of Normal and Abnormal Brain Development.", Journal of Child Neurology , issue 13(7), pp. 889-907 , 2013. Abstractsaleem_journal_of_child_neurology_2013.pdf

Knowledge of the anatomy of the developing fetal brain is essential to detect abnormalities and understand their pathogenesis. Capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the brain in utero and to differentiate between its various tissues makes fetal MRI a potential diagnostic and research tool for the developing brain. This article provides an approach to understand the normal and abnormal brain development through schematic interpretation of fetal brain MR images. MRI is a potential screening tool in the second trimester of pregnancies in fetuses at risk for brain anomalies and helps in describing new brain syndromes with in utero presentation. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps genetic counseling, facilitates management decisions, and guides therapy. Fetal MRI can help in better understanding the pathogenesis of fetal brain malformations and can support research that could lead to disease-specific interventions.

Saleem, S. N., and M. S. Zaki, "Role of MR imaging in prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk for Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders", American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 31, no. 3: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 424–429, 2010. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., Sabah Abdel Razek Sedik, and M. El-Halwagy, "A Child Mummy in a Pot: Computed Tomography Study and Insights on Child Burials in Ancient Egypt", Guardian Of Ancient Egypt: Studies in honor of Zahi Hawass. , Prague, Charles University , Faculty of Arts, 2020. child_in_a_pot_zahi_festshrift_2020.pdf
Saleem, S. N., A. H. M. Said, and D. H. Lee, "Lesions of the Hypothalamus: MR Imaging Diagnostic Features1", Radiographics, vol. 27, no. 4: Radiological Society of North America, pp. 1087–1108, 2007. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., A. H. Said, M. Abdel-Raouf, E. A. El-Kattan, M. S. Zaki, N. Madkour, and M. Shokry, "Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision", Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 11: Springer, pp. 761–772, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Subcutaneous packing in Royal Egyptian mummies dated from 18th to 20th Dynasties", J Comput Assist Tomogr , vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 301-306, 2015.
Saleem, S. N., A. H. M. Said, and D. H. Lee, "Lesions of the Hypothalamus: MR Imaging Diagnostic Features1", Radiographics, vol. 27, no. 4: Radiological Society of North America, pp. 1087–1108, 2007. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal MRI: An approach to practice", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, issue 5, pp. 507-523, 2014. Abstractjar_2013_article.pdf

MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state freeprecession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies.

Saleem, S. N., and Y. Y. Sabri, "Measuring Competence of Radiology Education Programs and Residents: The Egyptian Experience", Radiology Education: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 129–141, 2012. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., A. H. Said, M. Abdel-Raouf, E. A. El-Kattan, M. S. Zaki, N. Madkour, and M. Shokry, "Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision", Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 11: Springer, pp. 761–772, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography-New, 2012. Abstract

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Saleem, S., A. I. Belal, and N. M. El-Ghandour, "Spinal cord schistosomiasis: MR imaging appearance with surgical and pathologic correlation", American journal of neuroradiology, vol. 26, no. 7: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 1646–1654, 2005. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "MRI features of Neuro-Behcet disease", Neurographics, vol. 4, pp. 1–36, 2005. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Egyptian Medical Civilization: from Dawn of History to Kasr Al Ainy School ", Egyptian Medical Civilization: from Dawn of History to Kasr Al Ainy School , Barcelona-Spain, Pharmacy and Medicine in Ancient Egypt, pp. 104-115, 2021. saleem_medical_civilization_egypt_2021.pdf
Saleem, S. N., "How to read and to report a fetal MRI examination", MR of fetal and maternal diseases in pregnancy, Berlin, Springer-Verlag , 2016.
Saleem, S. N., "Feasibility of MRI of the fetal heart with balanced steady-state free precession sequence along fetal body and cardiac planes", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 191, no. 4: Am Roentgen Ray Soc, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., Y. Y. Sabri, and A. S. Saeed, "Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Springer Verlag, pp. 283, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Variability in Brain Treatment During Mummification of Royal Egyptians Dated to the 18th–20th Dynasties: MDCT Findings Correlated With the Archaeologic Literature", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 200, issue 4, pp. W336-W344, 2013. Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to use MDCT to study brain treatment and removal (excerebration) as part of mummification of royal Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties and to correlate the imaging findings with the archaeologic literature.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. As part of an MDCT study of the Royal Ancient Egyptian Mummies Project, we analyzed CT images of the heads of 12 mummies dated to circa 1493–1156 BC (18th to early 20th Dynasties). We reconstructed and analyzed CT images for the presence of cranial defects, brain remnants, intracranial embalming materials, and nasal packs. We compared the CT findings of mummies dated to the 18th Dynasty with those dated to the 19th to early 20th Dynasties.

RESULTS. The Akhenaten mummy was excluded because of extensive postmortem skull fractures. CT showed that no brain treatment was offered to three mummies (Thutmose I, II, and III) who dated to the early 18th Dynasty and was offered to the eight mummies who dated later. The route of excerebration was transnasal in eight mummies; an additional suspected route was via a parietal defect. CT showed variable appearances of the intracranial contents. There were larger volumes of cranial packs and more variability in the appearances of the cranial packs in the royal mummies dated to the 19th to 20th Dynasties than in those dated to the 18th Dynasty.

CONCLUSION. MDCT shows variations in brain treatment during mummification of royal Egyptian mummies (18th–20th Dynasties). This study sets a template for future CT studies of the heads of ancient Egyptian mummies and focuses on the key elements of cranial mummification in this ancient era.

Saleem, S. N., M. S. Zaki, N. A. Soliman, and M. Momtaz, "Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Molar Tooth Sign at 17 to 18 Weeks of Gestation in Two Fetuses at Risk for Joubert Syndrome and Related Cerebellar Disorders", Neuropediatrics, vol. 42, no. 1: Thieme, pp. 35–38, 2011. Abstract
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