Publications

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Journal Article
RG, B., C. GJ, V. MD, S. SN, S. H-A, and P. - M. D, "A paleoimaging study of human mummies held in the Mother Church of Gangi, Sicily: Implications for mass casualty methodology", Forensic Imaging, vol. 23, pp. 200416, 2020.
Youssef, A., S. Zagonari, G. Salsi, S. N. Saleem, J. Krsmanovic, and G. Pacella, "Prenatal diagnosis of isolated butterfly vertebra", Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 44, issue 6, pp. 26-27, 2014.
Saleem, S. N., M. S. Zaki, N. A. Soliman, and M. Momtaz, "Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Molar Tooth Sign at 17 to 18 Weeks of Gestation in Two Fetuses at Risk for Joubert Syndrome and Related Cerebellar Disorders", Neuropediatrics, vol. 42, no. 1: Thieme, pp. 35–38, 2011. Abstract
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Abdel-Salam, G. M. H., M. S. Abdel-Hamid, S. N. Saleem, M. K. H. Ahmed, M. Issa, L. K. Effat, H. F. Kayed, M. S. Zaki, and K. R. Gaber, "Profound microcephaly, primordial dwarfism with developmental brain malformations: A new syndrome", American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company, 2012. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., Y. Y. Sabri, and A. S. Saeed, "Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Springer Verlag, pp. 283, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., Y. Y. Sabri, and A. S. Saeed, "Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Springer, pp. 283, 2008. Abstract
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Hawass, Z., S. Ismail, A. Selim, S. N. Saleem, and D. Fathalla, "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study", BMJ: British Medical Journal, vol. 345, 2012. Abstract

Objective To investigate the true character of the harem conspiracy described in the Judicial Papyrus of Turin and determine whether Ramesses III was indeed killed.

Design Anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study of the mummies of Ramesses III and unknown man E, found together and taken from the 20th dynasty of ancient Egypt (circa 1190-1070 BC).

Results Computed tomography scans revealed a deep cut in Ramesses III’s throat, probably made by a sharp knife. During the mummification process, a Horus eye amulet was inserted in the wound for healing purposes, and the neck was covered by a collar of thick linen layers. Forensic examination of unknown man E showed compressed skin folds around his neck and a thoracic inflation. Unknown man E also had an unusual mummification procedure. According to genetic analyses, both mummies had identical haplotypes of the Y chromosome and a common male lineage.

Conclusions This study suggests that Ramesses III was murdered during the harem conspiracy by the cutting of his throat. Unknown man E is a possible candidate as Ramesses III’s son Pentawere.

Hawass, Z., S. Ismail, A. Selim, S. N. Saleem, D. Fathalla, S. Wasef, A. Z. Gad, R. Saad, S. Fares, H. Amer, et al., "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study", BMJ: British Medical Journal, vol. 345: BMJ, 2012. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and M. S. Zaki, "Role of MR imaging in prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk for Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders", American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 31, no. 3: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 424–429, 2010. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and M. S. Zaki, "Role of MR imaging in prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk for Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders", American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 31, no. 3: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 424–429, 2010. Abstract
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Saleem, S., A. I. Belal, and N. M. El-Ghandour, "Spinal cord schistosomiasis: MR imaging appearance with surgical and pathologic correlation", American journal of neuroradiology, vol. 26, no. 7: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 1646–1654, 2005. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Subcutaneous packing in Royal Egyptian mummies dated from 18th to 20th Dynasties", J Comput Assist Tomogr , vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 301-306, 2015.
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Variability in Brain Treatment During Mummification of Royal Egyptians Dated to the 18th–20th Dynasties: MDCT Findings Correlated With the Archaeologic Literature", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 200, issue 4, pp. W336-W344, 2013. Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to use MDCT to study brain treatment and removal (excerebration) as part of mummification of royal Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties and to correlate the imaging findings with the archaeologic literature.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. As part of an MDCT study of the Royal Ancient Egyptian Mummies Project, we analyzed CT images of the heads of 12 mummies dated to circa 1493–1156 BC (18th to early 20th Dynasties). We reconstructed and analyzed CT images for the presence of cranial defects, brain remnants, intracranial embalming materials, and nasal packs. We compared the CT findings of mummies dated to the 18th Dynasty with those dated to the 19th to early 20th Dynasties.

RESULTS. The Akhenaten mummy was excluded because of extensive postmortem skull fractures. CT showed that no brain treatment was offered to three mummies (Thutmose I, II, and III) who dated to the early 18th Dynasty and was offered to the eight mummies who dated later. The route of excerebration was transnasal in eight mummies; an additional suspected route was via a parietal defect. CT showed variable appearances of the intracranial contents. There were larger volumes of cranial packs and more variability in the appearances of the cranial packs in the royal mummies dated to the 19th to 20th Dynasties than in those dated to the 18th Dynasty.

CONCLUSION. MDCT shows variations in brain treatment during mummification of royal Egyptian mummies (18th–20th Dynasties). This study sets a template for future CT studies of the heads of ancient Egyptian mummies and focuses on the key elements of cranial mummification in this ancient era.