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Hawass, Z., and S. N. Saleem, Scanning the pharaohs: CT imaging of the New Kingdom Royal Mummies, , New York, AUC Press, 2016.
Journal Article
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Royal Egyptian mummies of 18th-20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies", Arthritis and Rheumatology , vol. 66, issue 12, pp. 3311-3316, 2014.
Aglan, M. S., A. K. Abdel-Aleem, A. I. S. EL-Katoury, M. H. Hafez, S. N. Saleem, G. A. Otaify, and S. A. Temtamy, "Clinical, anthropometric, radiological and molecular characteristics of Egyptian achondroplasia patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009. Abstract
Aglan, M. S., A. K. Abdel-Aleem, A. I. S. EL-Katoury, M. H. Hafez, S. N. Saleem, G. A. Otaify, and S. A. Temtamy, "Clinical, anthropometric, radiological and molecular characteristics of Egyptian achondroplasia patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009. Abstract
Hawass, Z., and S. N. Saleem, "Computed tomography examination of the screaming mummy “Unknown-Woman-A. ", Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, vol. 51, pp. 139, 2020.
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Computed tomography study of the feet of mummy of Ramesses III: New insights on the Harem Conspiracy", J Comput Assist Tomogr , vol. Sept , issue 41, pp. 15-17, 2017.
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Computed Tomography Study of the Mummy of King Seqenenre Taa II: New Insights Into His Violent Death.", Frontiers in medicine, vol. 8, pp. 637527, 2021. Abstractseqenenre_frontiers_2021.pdf

Seqenenre-Taa-II, The Brave, (c.1558-1553 BC) ruled Southern Egypt during the occupation of Egypt by the Hyksos. The mummy was physically examined and X-rayed in the 1960s, which showed severe head wounds that have prompted various theories about the circumstances of his death. We postulated that Computed Tomography (CT) study of Seqenenre-Taa-II's mummy would give insights into the circumstances of his death. We examined Seqenenre's mummy using CT and compared the findings with the archaeological literature as well as with five Asian weapons found in Tell-el-Dabaa. CT findings indicate that Seqenenre died in his forties. The mummies deformed hands suggest that the King was likely imprisoned with his hands tied. CT images provided detailed analysis of Seqenenre's previously reported injuries to the forehead, right supra-orbital, nose-right orbit, left chick, and skull base. This study revealed additional craniofacial fractures in the right lateral side of the skull that had been concealed by the embalmers beneath layers of material. Analysis of the morphology of the injuries enabled a better understanding of the mechanism of trauma, possible number of the attackers, and their relative position to the King. The size and shape of the fractures correlated well with the studied Hyksos weapons. The lethal attack was aimed at the King's face, likely in an attempt to disgrace him. Mummification of Seqenenre's body was limited to evisceration without brain removal. The desiccated brain is shifted to the left side of the skull. This may indicate that the King's dead body stayed on its left side for some time-long enough for decomposition start before the mummification began. This suggests that the King likely died at a location distant from the funeral place, possibly on a battlefield. The embalmers attempted to conceal the King's injuries; the methods used suggest that the mummification took place in a royal mummification workshop rather than in a poorly equipped location. CT findings of Seqenenre's mummy helped us to better understand the circumstances of his violent death. His death motivated his successors to continue the fight to unify Egypt and start The New Kingdom.

Nabhan, M. M., N. Elkhateeb, D. A. Braun, S. Eun, S. N. Saleem, H. Y. Gee, F. Hildebrandt, and N. A. Soliman, "Cystic kidneys in fetal Walker–Warburg syndrome with POMT2 mutation: Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in four siblings and review of literature", ة American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, vol. 173, issue 10, pp. 2697-2702, 2017.
Selim, L. A., M. S. Zaki, H. A. Hussein, S. N. Saleem, A. S. Kotoury, and M. Y. Issa, "Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: A study of 23 Egyptian patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 215–236, 2009. Abstract
Selim, L. A., M. S. Zaki, H. A. Hussein, S. N. Saleem, A. S. Kotoury, and M. Y. Issa, Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: Astudy of 23, , 2008. Abstract


Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Digital Unwrapping of the Mummy of King Amenhotep I (1525-1504 BC) Using CT.", Frontiers in medicine, vol. 8, pp. 778498, 2021. Abstract

The mummy of King Amenhotep I (18th Dynasty c.1525-1504 BC) was reburied by the 21st Dynasty priests at Deir el-Bahari Royal Cache. In 1881 the mummy was found fully wrapped and was one of few royal mummies that have not been unwrapped in modern times. We hypothesized that non-invasive digital unwrapping using CT would provide insights on the physical appearance, health, cause of death, and mummification style of the mummy of King Amenhotep I. We examined the mummy with CT and generated two- and three-dimensional images for the head mask, bandages, and the virtually unwrapped mummy. CT enabled the visualization of the face of Amenhotep I who died around the age of 35 years. The teeth had minimal attrition. There was no CT evidence of pathological changes or cause of death. The body has been eviscerated a vertical left flank incision. The heart is seen in the left hemithorax with an overlying amulet. The brain has not been removed. The mummy has 30 amulets/jewelry pieces including a beaded metallic (likely gold) girdle. The mummy suffered from multiple postmortem injuries likely inflicted by tomb robbers that have been likely treated by 21st Dynasty embalmers. These included fixing the detached head and neck to the body with a resin-treated linen band; covering a defect in the anterior abdominal wall with a band and placing two amulets beneath; placement of the detached left upper limb beside the body and wrapping it to the body. The transversely oriented right forearm is individually wrapped, likely representing the original 18th Dynasty mummification and considered the first known New Kingdom mummy with crossed arms at the chest. The head mask is made of cartonnage and has inlaid stone eyes. The digital unwrapping of the mummy of Amenhotep I using CT sets a unique opportunity to reveal the physical features of the King non-invasively, understand the mummification style early in the 18th Dynasty, and the reburial intervention style by 21st Dynasty embalmers. This study may make us gain confidence in the goodwill of the reburial project of the Royal mummies by the 21st dynasty priests.

Nabhan, M. M., S. Brenzinger, J. Carlsson, S. N. Saleem, E. A. Otto, and F. Hildebrandt, "Intrafamilial Variability and Clinical Heterogeneity in Two Siblings with NPHP4 loss of Function Mutations", Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis, vol. 6, issue 217, pp. 1-4, 2015.
Guemez-Gamboa, A., A. O. Çağlayan, V. Stanley, A. Gregor, M. S. Zaki, S. N. Saleem, D. Musaev, J. McEvoy-Venneri, D. Belandres, N. Akizu, et al., "Loss of Protocadherin-12 Leads to Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia Syndrome.", Annals of neurology, vol. 84, issue 5, pp. 638-647, 2018 Nov. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify causes of the autosomal-recessive malformation, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia (DMJD) syndrome.

METHODS: Eight families with DMJD were studied by whole-exome or targeted sequencing, with detailed clinical and radiological characterization. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were derived into neural precursor and endothelial cells to study gene expression.

RESULTS: All patients showed biallelic mutations in the nonclustered protocadherin-12 (PCDH12) gene. The characteristic clinical presentation included progressive microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, psychomotor disability, epilepsy, and axial hypotonia with variable appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging showed brainstem malformations and with frequent thinned corpus callosum with punctate brain calcifications, reflecting expression of PCDH12 in neural and endothelial cells. These cells showed lack of PCDH12 expression and impaired neurite outgrowth.

INTERPRETATION: DMJD patients have biallelic mutations in PCDH12 and lack of protein expression. These patients present with characteristic microcephaly and abnormalities of white matter tracts. Such pathogenic variants predict a poor outcome as a result of brainstem malformation and evidence of white matter tract defects, and should be added to the phenotypic spectrum associated with PCDH12-related conditions. Ann Neurol 2018;84:646-655.

Escande-Beillard, N., A. Loh, S. N. Saleem, K. Kanata, Y. Hashimoto, U. Altunoglu, A. Metoska, J. Grandjean, F. M. Ng, O. Pomp, et al., "Loss of PYCR2 Causes Neurodegeneration by Increasing Cerebral Glycine Levels via SHMT2.", Neuron, vol. 107, issue 1, pp. 82-94.e6, 2020. Abstract

Patients lacking PYCR2, a mitochondrial enzyme that synthesizes proline, display postnatal degenerative microcephaly with hypomyelination. Here we report the crystal structure of the PYCR2 apo-enzyme and show that a novel germline p.Gly249Val mutation lies at the dimer interface and lowers its enzymatic activity. We find that knocking out Pycr2 in mice phenocopies the human disorder and depletes PYCR1 levels in neural lineages. In situ quantification of neurotransmitters in the brains of PYCR2 mutant mice and patients revealed a signature of encephalopathy driven by excessive cerebral glycine. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that loss of PYCR2 upregulates SHMT2, which is responsible for glycine synthesis. This hyperglycemia could be partially reversed by SHMT2 knockdown, which rescued the axonal beading and neurite lengths of cultured Pycr2 knockout neurons. Our findings identify the glycine metabolic pathway as a possible intervention point to alleviate the neurological symptoms of PYCR2-mutant patients.

Hawass, Z., and S. N. Saleem, "Mummified Daughters of King Tutankhamun: Archeologic and CT Studies", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 197, no. 5: Am Roentgen Ray Soc, pp. W829–W836, 2011. Abstract
RG, B., C. GJ, V. MD, S. SN, S. H-A, and P. - M. D, "A paleoimaging study of human mummies held in the Mother Church of Gangi, Sicily: Implications for mass casualty methodology", Forensic Imaging, vol. 23, pp. 200416, 2020.
Hawass, Z., S. Ismail, A. Selim, S. N. Saleem, and D. Fathalla, "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study", BMJ: British Medical Journal, vol. 345, 2012. Abstract

Objective To investigate the true character of the harem conspiracy described in the Judicial Papyrus of Turin and determine whether Ramesses III was indeed killed.

Design Anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study of the mummies of Ramesses III and unknown man E, found together and taken from the 20th dynasty of ancient Egypt (circa 1190-1070 BC).

Results Computed tomography scans revealed a deep cut in Ramesses III’s throat, probably made by a sharp knife. During the mummification process, a Horus eye amulet was inserted in the wound for healing purposes, and the neck was covered by a collar of thick linen layers. Forensic examination of unknown man E showed compressed skin folds around his neck and a thoracic inflation. Unknown man E also had an unusual mummification procedure. According to genetic analyses, both mummies had identical haplotypes of the Y chromosome and a common male lineage.

Conclusions This study suggests that Ramesses III was murdered during the harem conspiracy by the cutting of his throat. Unknown man E is a possible candidate as Ramesses III’s son Pentawere.

Hawass, Z., S. Ismail, A. Selim, S. N. Saleem, D. Fathalla, S. Wasef, A. Z. Gad, R. Saad, S. Fares, H. Amer, et al., "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study", BMJ: British Medical Journal, vol. 345: BMJ, 2012. Abstract
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Subcutaneous packing in Royal Egyptian mummies dated from 18th to 20th Dynasties", J Comput Assist Tomogr , vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 301-306, 2015.
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Variability in Brain Treatment During Mummification of Royal Egyptians Dated to the 18th–20th Dynasties: MDCT Findings Correlated With the Archaeologic Literature", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 200, issue 4, pp. W336-W344, 2013. Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to use MDCT to study brain treatment and removal (excerebration) as part of mummification of royal Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties and to correlate the imaging findings with the archaeologic literature.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. As part of an MDCT study of the Royal Ancient Egyptian Mummies Project, we analyzed CT images of the heads of 12 mummies dated to circa 1493–1156 BC (18th to early 20th Dynasties). We reconstructed and analyzed CT images for the presence of cranial defects, brain remnants, intracranial embalming materials, and nasal packs. We compared the CT findings of mummies dated to the 18th Dynasty with those dated to the 19th to early 20th Dynasties.

RESULTS. The Akhenaten mummy was excluded because of extensive postmortem skull fractures. CT showed that no brain treatment was offered to three mummies (Thutmose I, II, and III) who dated to the early 18th Dynasty and was offered to the eight mummies who dated later. The route of excerebration was transnasal in eight mummies; an additional suspected route was via a parietal defect. CT showed variable appearances of the intracranial contents. There were larger volumes of cranial packs and more variability in the appearances of the cranial packs in the royal mummies dated to the 19th to 20th Dynasties than in those dated to the 18th Dynasty.

CONCLUSION. MDCT shows variations in brain treatment during mummification of royal Egyptian mummies (18th–20th Dynasties). This study sets a template for future CT studies of the heads of ancient Egyptian mummies and focuses on the key elements of cranial mummification in this ancient era.