Publications

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Book
Hawass, Z., and S. N. Saleem, Scanning the pharaohs: CT imaging of the New Kingdom Royal Mummies, , New York, AUC Press, 2016.
Book Chapter
SN, S., S. YY, and S. AS, ". Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University (Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital). ", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and learning, Berlin Heidelberg , Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2008.
SN, S., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography - New Techniques: InTech, 2012. CU-PDF
Saleem, S. N., "How to read and to report a fetal MRI examination", MR of fetal and maternal diseases in pregnancy, Berlin, Springer-Verlag , 2016.
SN, S., and S. YY, "Measuring competence of Radiology Education Programs and Residents: The Egyptian Experience", Radiology Education: The Evaluation and Assessment of Clinical Competence. , Berlin Heidelberg , Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2012. AbstractCU-PDF

Ancient Egypt had an advanced elaborate medical education and practice ruled by a competent bureaucracy that apprenticed physicians to be practicing healers. In modern history, the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University (Kasr Al-Ainy), established in 1827, continues the glory of Egypt in medical education as one of the biggest and oldest medical schools in Africa and the Middle East. Its central Radiology Department, with its total 77 radiologists, is responsible for clinical services as well as for providing multiple calibre radiology education programs for about 100 trainees annually from Egypt and neighbouring countries. Radiology education programs are planned for radiology residents to obtain master’s degree (M.Sc.), for assistant lecturers to obtain medical doctorate (M.D.) and for visitor trainees. Objectives of radiology education programs include knowledge, practical skills, intellectual capabilities and communications with medical societies and communities. Trainees are assessed to determine if learning objectives have been fulfilled on a daily, weekly and biannual basis. Radiology education programs are measured for professional performance through the university’s self-assessment studies; national assessment is measured through the National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Education (NAQAAE), Egypt, and international assessment is measured through the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME).

Journal Article
Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Royal Egyptian mummies of 18th-20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies", Arthritis and Rheumatology , vol. 66, issue 12, pp. 3311-3316, 2014.
Aglan, M. S., A. K. Abdel-Aleem, A. I. S. EL-Katoury, M. H. Hafez, S. N. Saleem, G. A. Otaify, and S. A. Temtamy, "Clinical, anthropometric, radiological and molecular characteristics of Egyptian achondroplasia patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009. Abstract
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Aglan, M. S., A. K. Abdel-Aleem, A. I. S. EL-Katoury, M. H. Hafez, S. N. Saleem, G. A. Otaify, and S. A. Temtamy, "Clinical, anthropometric, radiological and molecular characteristics of Egyptian achondroplasia patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Computed tomography study of the feet of mummy of Ramesses III: New insights on the Harem Conspiracy", J Comput Assist Tomogr , vol. Sept , issue 41, pp. 15-17, 2017.
Nabhan, M. M., N. Elkhateeb, D. A. Braun, S. Eun, S. N. Saleem, H. Y. Gee, F. Hildebrandt, and N. A. Soliman, "Cystic kidneys in fetal Walker–Warburg syndrome with POMT2 mutation: Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in four siblings and review of literature", ة American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, vol. 173, issue 10, pp. 2697-2702, 2017.
Lancaster, M. A., D. J. Gopal, J. Kim, S. N. Saleem, J. L. Silhavy, C. M. Louie, B. E. Thacker, Y. Williams, M. S. Zaki, and J. G. Gleeson, "Defective Wnt-dependent cerebellar midline fusion in a mouse model of Joubert syndrome", Nature Medicine, vol. 17, no. 6: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 726–731, 2011. Abstract
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Lancaster, M. A., D. J. Gopal, J. Kim, S. N. Saleem, J. L. Silhavy, C. M. Louie, B. E. Thacker, Y. Williams, M. S. Zaki, and J. G. Gleeson, "Defective Wnt-dependent cerebellar midline fusion in a mouse model of Joubert syndrome", Nature medicine, vol. 17, no. 6: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 726–731, 2011. Abstract
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Selim, L. A., M. S. Zaki, H. A. Hussein, S. N. Saleem, A. S. Kotoury, and M. Y. Issa, "Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: A study of 23 Egyptian patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 215–236, 2009. Abstract
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Selim, L. A., M. S. Zaki, H. A. Hussein, S. N. Saleem, A. S. Kotoury, and M. Y. Issa, Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: Astudy of 23, , 2008. Abstract

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Wade, A. D., R. Beckett, G. Conlogue, G. Garvin, S. Saleem, G. Natale, D. Caramella, and A. Nelson, "Diagnosis by consensus: A case study in the importance of interdisciplinary interpretation of mummified remains.", International journal of paleopathology, vol. 24, issue March, pp. 144-153, 2018 Oct 30, 2019. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to demonstrate the need for interdisciplinary consensus and inclusion of mummy radiology specialists in analyses of mummified remains.

MATERIALS: This study uses paleoimaging data for an ancient Egyptian mummy at the Museum of Human Anatomy "Filippo Civinini".

METHODS: This study demonstrates the benefit of evaluation of mummified remains in a multi-disciplinary interpretive team.

RESULTS: The authors propose a diagnosis of DISH, additional signs of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, and lumbarisation of S1.

CONCLUSIONS: The process of diagnosis by consensus is essential to the analysis of mummified remains, which are complexly altered through natural and anthropogenic processes in the millennia subsequent to the individual's death.

SIGNIFICANCE: Mummy paleoimaging and paleopathology lacks a unifying set of standards. We present an example of the value to be found in the multi-disciplinary diagnosis by consensus approach.

LIMITATIONS: We discuss numerous challenges to accurate and meaningful interpretation that radiography of mummified remains pose.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: While the authors do not seek to impose any single set of standards, we do recommend a larger discussion on the topic of (culture-specific) standardisation in mummy paleoimaging and paleopathology. We further recommend the development of an international, multi-disciplinary panel of paleoimaging interpreters.

Wade, A. D., R. Beckett, G. Conlogue, G. Garvin, S. Saleem, G. Natale, D. Caramella, and A. Nelson, "Diagnosis by consensus: Interpreting mummified pathological conditions", American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 156, pp. 315-316, 2015.
Maha S Zaki, Sahar N Saleem, W. D. J. B. H. B. A. D. M. A. N. A. J. B. A. M., "Diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation", Brain, vol. 135, issue 8, pp. 2416-2427, 2012. Abstract

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction with a characteristic ‘butterfly’-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term ‘diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia’ to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation.

Zaki, M. S., S. N. Saleem, W. B. Dobyns, A. J. Barkovich, H. Bartsch, A. M. Dale, M. Ashtari, N. Akizu, J. G. Gleeson, and A. M. Grijalvo-Perez, "Diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation", Brain, vol. 135, no. 8: Oxford University Press, pp. 2416–2427, 2012. Abstract

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction with a characteristic ‘butterfly’-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term ‘diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia’ to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation.

Saleem, S. N., "Feasibility of MRI of the fetal heart with balanced steady-state free precession sequence along fetal body and cardiac planes", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 191, no. 4: Am Roentgen Ray Soc, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Feasibility of MRI of the fetal heart with balanced steady-state free precession sequence along fetal body and cardiac planes", American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 191, no. 4: Am Roentgen Ray Soc, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. Abstract
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Abdel‐Salam, G. M. H., M. S. Abdel‐Hamid, H. A. El‐Khayat, O. M. Eid, S. Saba, M. K. Farag, S. N. Saleem, and K. Gaber, "Fetal brain disruption sequence versus fetal brain arrest: A distinct autosomal recessive developmental brain malformation phenotype", American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, vol. 167, issue 5, pp. 1089-1099, 2015.
Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography-New, 2012. Abstract

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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A Tool for a Better Understanding of Normal and Abnormal Brain Development.", Journal of Child Neurology , issue 13(7), pp. 889-907 , 2013. Abstractsaleem_journal_of_child_neurology_2013.pdf

Knowledge of the anatomy of the developing fetal brain is essential to detect abnormalities and understand their pathogenesis. Capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the brain in utero and to differentiate between its various tissues makes fetal MRI a potential diagnostic and research tool for the developing brain. This article provides an approach to understand the normal and abnormal brain development through schematic interpretation of fetal brain MR images. MRI is a potential screening tool in the second trimester of pregnancies in fetuses at risk for brain anomalies and helps in describing new brain syndromes with in utero presentation. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps genetic counseling, facilitates management decisions, and guides therapy. Fetal MRI can help in better understanding the pathogenesis of fetal brain malformations and can support research that could lead to disease-specific interventions.

Saleem, S. N., A. H. Said, M. Abdel-Raouf, E. A. El-Kattan, M. S. Zaki, N. Madkour, and M. Shokry, "Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision", Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 11: Springer, pp. 761–772, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., A. H. Said, M. Abdel-Raouf, E. A. El-Kattan, M. S. Zaki, N. Madkour, and M. Shokry, "Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision", Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 11: Springer, pp. 761–772, 2009. Abstract
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