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Zaki, M. S., G. M. H. Salam, S. N. Saleem, W. B. Dobyns, M. Y. Issa, S. Sattar, and J. G. Gleeson, "New recessive syndrome of microcephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and congenital heart conduction defect", American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A: Wiley Online Library, 2011. Abstract
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Zaki, M. S., A. Abdel-Aleem, G. Abdel-Salam, S. E. Marsh, J. L. Silhavy, A. J. Barkovich, M. E. Ross, S. N. Saleem, W. B. Dobyns, and J. G. Gleeson, "The molar tooth sign A new Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders classification system tested in Egyptian families", Neurology, vol. 70, no. 7: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 556–565, 2008. Abstract

Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders (JSRD) are a group of recessive congenital ataxia conditions usually showing neonatal hypotonia, dysregulated breathing rhythms, oculomotor apraxia, and mental retardation. The pathognomonic finding in JSRD is the unique molar tooth sign (MTS) on brain imaging. There is a tremendously broad spectrum of signs and symptoms mainly including kidney, retina, and liver disease, along with polydactyly and facial dysmorphisms. Here we propose a new diagnostic classification within JSRD that includes four major subtypes. To test this classification, we performed a systematic recruitment and genetic evaluation from a single referral center in Egypt. Thirteen families were identified, four showed evidence of linkage to one of the four known genetic loci, three showed novel AHI1 mutations, and nine were excluded from known loci. Each family could be classified into one of the four subtypes. This classification may thus be useful in the evaluation of patients with JSRD.

GLOSSARY: BUN = blood urinary nitrogen; COACH = cerebellar vermis hypo/aplasia-oligophrenia-ataxia-ocular coloboma-hepatic fibrosis; CORS = cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome; CVH = cerebellar vermis hypoplasia; DAS = Dekaban-Arima syndrome; DWM = Dandy-Walker malformation; JSRD = Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders; LCA = Leber congenital amaurosis; lod = logarithm of odds score; MKS = Meckel-Gruber syndrome; MTS = molar tooth sign; NPH = nephronophthisis; NRC = National Research Center; OFD-VI = oro-facio-digital syndrome type VI; PCH = pontocerebellar hypoplasia; RHO = rhombencephalosynapsis; SLS = Senior-Loken syndrome.

Zaki, M. S., S. N. Saleem, W. B. Dobyns, A. J. Barkovich, H. Bartsch, A. M. Dale, M. Ashtari, N. Akizu, J. G. Gleeson, and A. M. Grijalvo-Perez, "Diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation", Brain, vol. 135, no. 8: Oxford University Press, pp. 2416–2427, 2012. Abstract

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction with a characteristic ‘butterfly’-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term ‘diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia’ to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation.

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Youssef, A., S. Zagonari, G. Salsi, S. N. Saleem, J. Krsmanovic, and G. Pacella, "Prenatal diagnosis of isolated butterfly vertebra", Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 44, issue 6, pp. 26-27, 2014.
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Wade, A. D., R. Beckett, G. Conlogue, G. Garvin, S. Saleem, G. Natale, D. Caramella, and A. Nelson, "Diagnosis by consensus: Interpreting mummified pathological conditions", American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 156, pp. 315-316, 2015.
Wade, A. D., R. Beckett, G. Conlogue, G. Garvin, S. Saleem, G. Natale, D. Caramella, and A. Nelson, "Diagnosis by consensus: A case study in the importance of interdisciplinary interpretation of mummified remains.", International journal of paleopathology, vol. 24, issue March, pp. 144-153, 2018 Oct 30, 2019. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to demonstrate the need for interdisciplinary consensus and inclusion of mummy radiology specialists in analyses of mummified remains.

MATERIALS: This study uses paleoimaging data for an ancient Egyptian mummy at the Museum of Human Anatomy "Filippo Civinini".

METHODS: This study demonstrates the benefit of evaluation of mummified remains in a multi-disciplinary interpretive team.

RESULTS: The authors propose a diagnosis of DISH, additional signs of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, and lumbarisation of S1.

CONCLUSIONS: The process of diagnosis by consensus is essential to the analysis of mummified remains, which are complexly altered through natural and anthropogenic processes in the millennia subsequent to the individual's death.

SIGNIFICANCE: Mummy paleoimaging and paleopathology lacks a unifying set of standards. We present an example of the value to be found in the multi-disciplinary diagnosis by consensus approach.

LIMITATIONS: We discuss numerous challenges to accurate and meaningful interpretation that radiography of mummified remains pose.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: While the authors do not seek to impose any single set of standards, we do recommend a larger discussion on the topic of (culture-specific) standardisation in mummy paleoimaging and paleopathology. We further recommend the development of an international, multi-disciplinary panel of paleoimaging interpreters.

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SN, S., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography - New Techniques: InTech, 2012. CU-PDF
SN, S., and S. YY, "Measuring competence of Radiology Education Programs and Residents: The Egyptian Experience", Radiology Education: The Evaluation and Assessment of Clinical Competence. , Berlin Heidelberg , Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2012. AbstractCU-PDF

Ancient Egypt had an advanced elaborate medical education and practice ruled by a competent bureaucracy that apprenticed physicians to be practicing healers. In modern history, the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University (Kasr Al-Ainy), established in 1827, continues the glory of Egypt in medical education as one of the biggest and oldest medical schools in Africa and the Middle East. Its central Radiology Department, with its total 77 radiologists, is responsible for clinical services as well as for providing multiple calibre radiology education programs for about 100 trainees annually from Egypt and neighbouring countries. Radiology education programs are planned for radiology residents to obtain master’s degree (M.Sc.), for assistant lecturers to obtain medical doctorate (M.D.) and for visitor trainees. Objectives of radiology education programs include knowledge, practical skills, intellectual capabilities and communications with medical societies and communities. Trainees are assessed to determine if learning objectives have been fulfilled on a daily, weekly and biannual basis. Radiology education programs are measured for professional performance through the university’s self-assessment studies; national assessment is measured through the National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Education (NAQAAE), Egypt, and international assessment is measured through the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME).

SN, S., S. YY, and S. AS, ". Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University (Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital). ", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and learning, Berlin Heidelberg , Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2008.
Shokry, M., and S. Saleem, "IC Conferences", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 231–235, 2000. Abstract
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Shokry, M., and S. Saleem, "IC Conferences", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 231–235, 2000. Abstract
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Selim, L. A., M. S. Zaki, H. A. Hussein, S. N. Saleem, A. S. Kotoury, and M. Y. Issa, "Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: A study of 23 Egyptian patients", Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 215–236, 2009. Abstract
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Selim, L. A., M. S. Zaki, H. A. Hussein, S. N. Saleem, A. S. Kotoury, and M. Y. Issa, Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain: Astudy of 23, , 2008. Abstract

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Saleem, S. N., A. H. M. Said, and D. H. Lee, "Lesions of the Hypothalamus: MR Imaging Diagnostic Features1", Radiographics, vol. 27, no. 4: Radiological Society of North America, pp. 1087–1108, 2007. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., Y. Y. Sabri, and A. S. Saeed, "Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Springer Verlag, pp. 283, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "MRI features of Neuro-Behcet disease", Neurographics, vol. 4, pp. 1–36, 2005. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., and M. S. Zaki, "Role of MR imaging in prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk for Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders", American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 31, no. 3: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 424–429, 2010. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "Fetal MRI: An approach to practice", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, issue 5, pp. 507-523, 2014. Abstractjar_2013_article.pdf

MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state freeprecession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies.

Saleem, S. N., "Egyptian Medical Civilization: from Dawn of History to Kasr Al Ainy School ", Egyptian Medical Civilization: from Dawn of History to Kasr Al Ainy School , Barcelona-Spain, Pharmacy and Medicine in Ancient Egypt, pp. 104-115, 2021. saleem_medical_civilization_egypt_2021.pdf
Saleem, S. N., A. H. M. Said, and D. H. Lee, "Lesions of the Hypothalamus: MR Imaging Diagnostic Features1", Radiographics, vol. 27, no. 4: Radiological Society of North America, pp. 1087–1108, 2007. Abstract
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Saleem, S., A. I. Belal, and N. M. El-Ghandour, "Spinal cord schistosomiasis: MR imaging appearance with surgical and pathologic correlation", American journal of neuroradiology, vol. 26, no. 7: Am Soc Neuroradiology, pp. 1646–1654, 2005. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., "How to read and to report a fetal MRI examination", MR of fetal and maternal diseases in pregnancy, Berlin, Springer-Verlag , 2016.
Saleem, S. N., "Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)", Echocardiography-New, 2012. Abstract

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Saleem, S. N., and Z. Hawass, "Digital Unwrapping of the Mummy of King Amenhotep I (1525-1504 BC) Using CT.", Frontiers in medicine, vol. 8, pp. 778498, 2021. Abstract

The mummy of King Amenhotep I (18th Dynasty c.1525-1504 BC) was reburied by the 21st Dynasty priests at Deir el-Bahari Royal Cache. In 1881 the mummy was found fully wrapped and was one of few royal mummies that have not been unwrapped in modern times. We hypothesized that non-invasive digital unwrapping using CT would provide insights on the physical appearance, health, cause of death, and mummification style of the mummy of King Amenhotep I. We examined the mummy with CT and generated two- and three-dimensional images for the head mask, bandages, and the virtually unwrapped mummy. CT enabled the visualization of the face of Amenhotep I who died around the age of 35 years. The teeth had minimal attrition. There was no CT evidence of pathological changes or cause of death. The body has been eviscerated a vertical left flank incision. The heart is seen in the left hemithorax with an overlying amulet. The brain has not been removed. The mummy has 30 amulets/jewelry pieces including a beaded metallic (likely gold) girdle. The mummy suffered from multiple postmortem injuries likely inflicted by tomb robbers that have been likely treated by 21st Dynasty embalmers. These included fixing the detached head and neck to the body with a resin-treated linen band; covering a defect in the anterior abdominal wall with a band and placing two amulets beneath; placement of the detached left upper limb beside the body and wrapping it to the body. The transversely oriented right forearm is individually wrapped, likely representing the original 18th Dynasty mummification and considered the first known New Kingdom mummy with crossed arms at the chest. The head mask is made of cartonnage and has inlaid stone eyes. The digital unwrapping of the mummy of Amenhotep I using CT sets a unique opportunity to reveal the physical features of the King non-invasively, understand the mummification style early in the 18th Dynasty, and the reburial intervention style by 21st Dynasty embalmers. This study may make us gain confidence in the goodwill of the reburial project of the Royal mummies by the 21st dynasty priests.

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