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Journal Article
Gheita, T. A., S. Sayed, G. S. Azkalany, N. Abaza, N. Hammam, and A. H. Eisa, "Toll-like receptor 9 in systemic sclerosis patients: relation to modified Rodnan skin score, disease severity, and functional status.", Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 37, issue 3, pp. 757-763, 2017.
El-Gazzar, I. I., H. M. Fathy, T. A. Gheita, and S. A. Kenawy, "Tumor necrosis factor-α -308 A/G gene polymorphism in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: relation to disease activity, damage, and functional status.", Clin Rheumatol, vol. 36, issue 8, pp. 1757-1763, 2017.
Gheita, T. A., B. R. Sakr, R. E. Rabea, and S. M. Abdel Hamid, "Value of hematological indices versus VEGF as biomarkers of activity in Behçet's disease.", Clinical rheumatology, vol. 38, issue 8, pp. 2201-2210, 2019. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the value of several hematological indices, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and mean platelet volume (MPV), versus vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as biomarkers of activity in Behçet's disease (BD).

METHODS: This study included 96 adult BD patients recruited from the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic, Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital, Cairo University, and 60 healthy subjects as controls. Assessment of BD activity was done using the Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The CBC was measured by COULTER LH 750 assay analyzer with special consideration to the NLR, PLR, MPV, and RDW. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.

RESULTS: The NLR, RDW, and PLR were significantly higher in BD patients when compared with healthy controls (p = 0.011, < 0.001, < 0.001, respectively), while there was no statistical difference in MPV or VEGF between patients and controls (p = 0.82, 0.46). NLR and PLR were significantly higher in BD patients with vascular activity (p = 0.03, 0.01). RDW was significantly higher, while MPV was significantly lower in patients with vascular manifestations (p = 0.04, 0.004). NLR and PLR were the most valuable predictors of vascular activity (p = 0.033, 0.018). PLR was more powerful as a predictor of vascular activity, but it had a lower specificity than NLR.

CONCLUSION: The NLR, PLR, and RDW are significantly higher in BD patients, suggesting their value as promising inflammatory biomarkers in BD. NLR and PLR are the most valuable predictors of vascular activity, while RDW and MPV were not valuable predictors of BD activity, rather implicated in the ongoing vascular inflammatory process in BD. The VEGF was neither a surrogate biomarker of BD activity nor reflecting the ongoing inflammatory process in BD.

Elgengehy, F. T., S. M. Gamal, N. Sobhy, I. Siam, A. M. Soliman, G. W. Elhady, and T. A. Gheita, "Vasculitis damage index in Behçet's disease.", Advances in rheumatology (London, England), vol. 61, issue 1, pp. 33, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vasculitis damage index (VDI) is a validated damage index for systemic vasculitis, and as Behçet's disease is considered one of systemic vascular disease we aimed to study the relationship of the vasculitis damage index to clinical manifestations and comorbidity in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) to determine if VDI could be used to assess damage in patients with BD.

METHODS: A total of 109 patients with BD were recruited from the Rheumatology Department (outpatient and inpatient clinic), Cairo University Hospitals. All patients were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and routine laboratory investigations. Disease activity was assessed by the BD current activity form, and the VDI was calculated in all patients. The relationship of the VDI to the disease clinical manifestations was studied. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to estimate differences in quantitative variables. Spearman correlation test was used to test for correlation between quantitative variables.

RESULTS: In the current study, the VDI ranged from 1 to 10, with a mean of 3.5 ± 1.8. It was significantly associated with total thrombosis (P = 0.022); total neurological manifestations (P = 0.000), especially stroke and cranial nerve affection; uveitis (P = 0.005); avascular necrosis (AVN) (P = 0.015); osteoporosis (P = 0.01); impaired vision (P < 0.0001); cataract (P < 0.0001); and diabetes (P = 0.012). Generally, immunosuppressive treatment was significantly associated with VDI (P = 0.039), especially cyclophosphamide (P < 0.0001), biological agent (P = 0.008), chlorambucil (P = 0.003), and anticoagulant (P = 0.02). VDI was also significantly correlated with age (P = 0.033), disease duration (P = 0.029), and duration of eye involvement (P = 0.003).

CONCLUSION: VDI is significantly associated with most disease parameters of BD, except for parameters such as mucocutaneous manifestations and uncomplicated venous thrombosis; however, further studies may be needed to establish BD-specific damage index.

Gheita, T. A., S. Sayed, and H. A. Gheita, "Vitamin D status in rheumatoid arthritis patients: relation to clinical manifestations, disease activity, quality of life and fibromyalgia syndrome. ", Intl J Rheum Dis, issue doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.12426. [Epub ahead of print], 2014.
Gheita, T., S. Sayed, H. Gheita, and S. Kenawy, "Vitamin D status in rheumatoid arthritis patients: relation to clinical manifestations, disease activity, quality of life and fibromyalgia syndrome.", Int J Rheum Dis, vol. 19, issue 3, pp. 294-9, 2016.