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Journal Article
Gaber, W., GS Azkalany, T. A. Gheita, and et al, "Clinical significance of serum interleukin-6 and −174 G/C promoter polymorphism in Rheumatoid arthritis patients.", The Egyptian Rheumatologist,, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 107-113, 2013.
Gheita, T. A., GS Azkalany, W. Gaber, and A. Mohey, "Clinical significance of serum TNFα and -308 G/A promoter polymorphism in Rheumatoid Arthritis. ", The Egyptian Rheumatologist, vol. 37, issue 2, pp. 49-54, 2015.
Tharwat, S., S. S. ElAdle, A. H. Moshrif, F. Ismail, R. El-Shereef, E. A. Talaat, S. Hassanein, Y. Hisham, and T. A. Gheita, "Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in Behçet's disease patients: a remarkable gender gap and time to refine the treatment strategy.", Clinical rheumatology, vol. 41, issue 1, pp. 195-201, 2022. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work was to delineate the computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) findings in Behçet's disease (BD) patients with and without chest manifestations.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 122 BD adults recruited from 5 Teaching University Hospitals in Egypt of those who agreed to perform a CTPA. The Arabic version of BD current activity form (BDCAF) and BD damage index (BDI) were assessed. Detailed pulmonary manifestations, examination, plain radiology chest, and CTPA findings were recorded.

RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 36.9 ± 11.3 years, male:female was 1.8:1, disease duration 9.6 ± 8.2 years, and age at onset 28.3 ± 8.6 years. Their mean BDCAF was 4.4 ± 2.2 and BDI 3.4 ± 1.8. There were chest manifestations in 51 (41.8%) and plain chest x-ray findings in 13 (10.7%) and CTPA findings in 31 (25.4%) in the form of pulmonary thromboembolism in 15 (12.3%), pulmonary aneurysms in 7 (5.7%), pneumonia in 5 (4.1%), interstitial lung disease in 4 (3.3%) and pleural effusion in 3 (2.5%). Patients with chest manifestations had significantly higher frequency of cardiac manifestations (15.7%) compared to those without (2.8%; p = 0.023); chest x-ray findings tended to be higher (17.6% vs 5.6%; p = 0.05) while CTPA findings were significantly detected (51% vs 7%; p < 0.0001). Higher frequency of CTPA findings were in females (p < 0.0001). Yet the rate of serious pulmonary embolisms, aneurysms, and thrombosis was exclusive in males.

CONCLUSION: Meticulous investigation of the chest manifestations is warranted in BD patients to undermine the actual magnitude of pulmonary impact. CTPA provides a realistic estimate of the extent of involvement even in asymptomatic cases. Key Points • Meticulous chest assessment is warranted in Behçet's disease patients to undermine the actual magnitude of pulmonary impact • CTPA provides a realistic estimate of the extent of involvement even in asymptomatic cases.

Sen, P., L. Gupta, J. B. Lilleker, V. Aggarwal, S. Kardes, M. Milchert, T. Gheita, B. Salim, T. Velikova, A. E. Gracia-Ramos, et al., "COVID-19 vaccination in autoimmune disease (COVAD) survey protocol.", Rheumatology international, vol. 42, issue 1, pp. 23-29, 2022. Abstract

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a cause of unprecedented global morbidity and mortality. Whilst COVID-19 vaccination has emerged as the only tangible solution to reducing poor clinical outcomes, vaccine hesitancy continues to be an obstacle to achieving high levels of vaccine uptake. This represents particular risk to patients with autoimmune diseases, a group already at increased risk of hospitalization and poor clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 infection. Whilst there is a paucity of long-term safety and efficacy data of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, the current evidence strongly suggests that the benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks of adverse effects and disease flares. Herein, we report the protocol of the COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) study, an ongoing international collaborative study involving 29 countries and over 110 investigators.

Putman, M., K. Kennedy, E. Sirotich, J. W. Liew, S. E. Sattui, T. T. Moni, A. A. Akpabio, D. Alpizar-Rodriguez, S. Angevare, R. P. Beesley, et al., "COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and uptake: results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Vaccine Survey.", The Lancet. Rheumatology, vol. 4, issue 4, pp. e237-e240, 2022.
Gheita, T. A., N. Hammam, S. M. Fawzy, E. A. El-Latif, I. I. El-Gazzar, N. Samy, D. H. El-Hammady, R. A. Noor, E. El-Shebini, A. R. El-Najjar, et al., "Development and validation of a Behçet's Disease Damage Index for adults with BD: An Explicit, Composite and Rated (ECR) tool.", International journal of rheumatic diseases, vol. 24, issue 8, pp. 1071-1079, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem variable vessel vasculitis. Disease damage is irreversible and permanent. Validated tools evaluating damage are limited. Enhancements in the clinical treatment of vasculitis will take place from the development of refined and exclusive indices for individual vasculitic syndromes including BD and attempting their international validation.

OBJECTIVES: This aim was to develop and validate a simple BD Damage Index (BDI).

METHODS: This was a nationwide study including 1252 BD patients. The work consisted of 3 stages. Stage 1: items generation for score content. Stage 2: items selection for the draft score was performed by an expert rheumatologist. Stage 3: the content validity of the draft score was assessed and BDI, Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI), Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated Vasculitis Index of Damage (AVID) and Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDAI) were calculated and compared.

RESULTS: The mean age of the BD patients was 36.1 ± 9.9 years. Stages 1 and 2 resulted in a BDI instrument containing 73 items with a maximum score of 100. Stage 3, the VDI, CDAI, AVID, and BDI were 2.9 ± 2.2, 3.1 ± 2.3, 3.1 ± 2.3 and 5.1 ± 2.9, respectively. High correlations (r = .9) between comparable damage scores assured acceptable concurrent validity.

CONCLUSION: The proposed BDI represents a new robust and potentially useful tool when dealing with BD chronic status.

Gheita, T. A., H. M. Fathi, N. N. Eesa, E. El-Shebini, S. Tharwat, N. Hammam, R. M. Fawzy, R. R. El-Shereef, M. H. Abd El-Samea, R. A. Abdel Noor, et al., "Development of an Arabic version of the Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (Ar-BDCAF): cross-cultural adaptation and validation initiative in Egypt.", Clinical rheumatology, vol. 40, issue 11, pp. 4609-4618, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Behçet's disease (BD), commonly seen in the Silk road countries, is a variable vessel vasculitis with no specific investigation that reflects disease activity. The Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF) is the most famous and acceptable clinical activity score.

PURPOSE: To develop a cross-cultural adaptation of the BDCAF to the Arabic language (Ar-BDCAF)-Egyptian dialect-across the country and to consider preliminary evaluation of its reliability in assessment of BD activity.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The score was translated to Arabic language and revised by 3 rheumatology consultants. Reliability of Ar-BDCAF was tested among 88 BD patients from 9 Egyptian main city centers. Patients were questioned by two specialists at 30 min interval to evaluate inter-observer rating and twice by the same physician within 24 h to assess the intra-observer rating.

RESULTS: Patients were 64 males and 24 females (2.7:1) with a mean age of 35 ± 10.3 years. The average time required by the consultant to fill in the form was 5.1 ± 2.2 min (1.5-15 min). The mean Ar-BDCAF scores were 9.81 ± 6.22 (0-25) and 9.53 ± 6.13 (0-28) with an intra-observer concordance (p = 0.28) and was 9.95 ± 6.47 (0-29) for the inter-observer rating (p = 0.89 and p = 0.66, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The Ar-BDCAF is a measurable, easy to calculate, and reliable index for assessing disease activity in Egyptian BD. The Ar-BDCAF score can be used in daily clinical practice to assess BD activity and its use can be extended to other Arab countries for possible regional validation and adaptations. Key Points • The Arabic version of the BDCAF can be extended to other Arab countries for development of a Pan-Arab score. • This is the first study to provide a reliable and valid Arabic version of the BDCAF-Egyptian dialect for measuring current disease activity in BD patients.

Sattui, S. E., J. W. Liew, K. Kennedy, E. Sirotich, M. Putman, T. T. Moni, A. Akpabio, D. Alpízar-Rodríguez, F. Berenbaum, I. Bulina, et al., "Early experience of COVID-19 vaccination in adults with systemic rheumatic diseases: results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Vaccine Survey.", RMD open, vol. 7, issue 3, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We describe the early experiences of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received the COVID-19 vaccine.

METHODS: From 2 April to 30 April 2021, we conducted an online, international survey of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination. We collected patient-reported data on clinician communication, beliefs and intent about discontinuing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) around the time of vaccination, and patient-reported adverse events after vaccination.

RESULTS: We analysed 2860 adults with systemic rheumatic diseases who received COVID-19 vaccination (mean age 55.3 years, 86.7% female, 86.3% white). Types of COVID-19 vaccines were Pfizer-BioNTech (53.2%), Oxford/AstraZeneca (22.6%), Moderna (21.3%), Janssen/Johnson & Johnson (1.7%) and others (1.2%). The most common rheumatic disease was rheumatoid arthritis (42.3%), and 81.2% of respondents were on a DMARD. The majority (81.9%) reported communicating with clinicians about vaccination. Most (66.9%) were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy, although many (44.3%) were concerned about rheumatic disease flares. After vaccination, the most reported patient-reported adverse events were fatigue/somnolence (33.4%), headache (27.7%), muscle/joint pains (22.8%) and fever/chills (19.9%). Rheumatic disease flares that required medication changes occurred in 4.6%.

CONCLUSION: Among adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination, patient-reported adverse events were typical of those reported in the general population. Most patients were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy. The relatively low frequency of rheumatic disease flare requiring medications was reassuring.

Gheita, T. A., "Editorial: Gene therapy and rheumatic diseases: Back to the Future.", African J of Rheumatology,, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 1-3, 2014.
Khalil, H. M., H. A. El-Gendy, H. A. Raafat, and T. A. Gheita, "The Effectiveness of Pre- and Postoperative Infliximab in Controlling Behçet's Disease Posterior Uveitis in Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy: A Preliminary Study.", J Ophthalmol, vol. 2017, issue 8168369, pp. 1-10, 2017.
Gheita, T. A., and S. A. Kenawy, "Egypt's groundwork blessing during the COVID-19 pandemic curse: Rheumatologic experience.", European journal of rheumatology, vol. 7, issue Suppl 2, pp. S134-S136, 2020.
Gheita, T. A., I. I. El-Gazzar, R. I. El-Shazly, and et al, "Elevated Serum Resistin in Juvenile IdiopathicArthritis: Relation to Categories and Disease Activity.", J Clin Immunol. , vol. 33, issue 1, pp. 297-301, 2013.
Fotouh, A. A., M. O. N. A. HAMDY, F. Ali, E. F. Mohamed, A. Allam, W. A. Hassan, A. Elsaman, A. El-Najjar, M. A. Amer, D. Mosad, et al., "The Emerging Era of Interventional Imaging in Rheumatology: An Overview During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic.", Open access rheumatology : research and reviews, vol. 14, pp. 43-56, 2022. Abstract

Imaging has long been taking its place in the diagnosis, monitor, and prognosis of rheumatic diseases. It plays a vital role in the appraisal of treatment. Key progress in the clinical practice of rheumatology is the innovation of advanced imaging modalities; such as musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These modalities introduced a promising noninvasive method for visualizing bone and soft tissues to enable an improved diagnosis. The use of MSUS in rheumatology is considered a landmark in the evolution of the specialty and its ease of use and many applications in rheumatic diseases make it a forerunner instrument in the practice. The use of MSUS among rheumatologists must parallel the development rate of the excellence revealed in the specialty. Moreover, innovative interventional imaging in rheumatology (III-R) is gaining fame and key roles in the near future for a comprehensive management of rheumatic diseases with precision. This review article throws light on the emergence of these robust innovations that may reshape the guidelines and practice in rheumatology, in particular, efforts to enhance best practice during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are endorsed.

T, G., and K. S, "Emerging value of stem cell therapy in rheumatic diseases", African Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 9, issue 1, 2021.
Brito-Zerón, P., N. Acar-Denizli, W. - F. Ng, I. F. Horváth, A. Rasmussen, R. Seror, X. Li, C. Baldini, J. - E. Gottenberg, D. Danda, et al., "Epidemiological profile and north-south gradient driving baseline systemic involvement of primary Sjögren's syndrome.", Rheumatology (Oxford, England), vol. 59, issue 9, pp. 2350-2359, 2020. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the systemic phenotype of primary Sjögren's syndrome at diagnosis by analysing the EULAR-SS disease activity index (ESSDAI) scores.

METHODS: The Sjögren Big Data Consortium is an international, multicentre registry based on worldwide data-sharing cooperative merging of pre-existing databases from leading centres in clinical research in Sjögren's syndrome from the five continents.

RESULTS: The cohort included 10 007 patients (9352 female, mean 53 years) with recorded ESSDAI scores available. At diagnosis, the mean total ESSDAI score was 6.1; 81.8% of patients had systemic activity (ESSDAI score ≥1). Males had a higher mean ESSDAI (8.1 vs 6.0, P < 0.001) compared with females, as did patients diagnosed at <35 years (6.7 vs 5.6 in patients diagnosed at >65 years, P < 0.001). The highest global ESSDAI score was reported in Black/African Americans, followed by White, Asian and Hispanic patients (6.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 4.8, respectively; P < 0.001). The frequency of involvement of each systemic organ also differed between ethnic groups, with Black/African American patients showing the highest frequencies in the lymphadenopathy, articular, peripheral nervous system, CNS and biological domains, White patients in the glandular, cutaneous and muscular domains, Asian patients in the pulmonary, renal and haematological domains and Hispanic patients in the constitutional domain. Systemic activity measured by the ESSDAI, clinical ESSDAI (clinESSDAI) and disease activity states was higher in patients from southern countries (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The systemic phenotype of primary Sjögren's syndrome is strongly influenced by personal determinants such as age, gender, ethnicity and place of residence, which are key geoepidemiological players in driving the expression of systemic disease at diagnosis.

Ramos-Casals, M., P. Brito-Zerón, S. Bombardieri, H. Bootsma, S. De Vita, T. Dörner, B. A. Fisher, J. - E. Gottenberg, G. Hernandez-Molina, A. Kocher, et al., "EULAR recommendations for the management of Sjögren's syndrome with topical and systemic therapies.", Annals of the rheumatic diseases, vol. 79, issue 1, pp. 3-18, 2020. Abstract

The therapeutic management of Sjögren syndrome (SjS) has not changed substantially in recent decades: treatment decisions remain challenging in clinical practice, without a specific therapeutic target beyond the relief of symptoms as the most important goal. In view of this scenario, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) promoted and supported an international collaborative study (EULAR SS Task Force) aimed at developing the first EULAR evidence and consensus-based recommendations for the management of patients with SjS with topical and systemic medications. The aim was to develop a rational therapeutic approach to SjS patients useful for healthcare professionals, physicians undergoing specialist training, medical students, the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory organisations following the 2014 EULAR standardised operating procedures. The Task Force (TF) included specialists in rheumatology, internal medicine, oral health, ophthalmology, gynaecology, dermatology and epidemiology, statisticians, general practitioners, nurses and patient representatives from 30 countries of the 5 continents. Evidence was collected from studies including primary SjS patients fulfilling the 2002/2016 criteria; when no evidence was available, evidence from studies including associated SjS or patients fulfilling previous sets of criteria was considered and extrapolated. The TF endorsed the presentation of general principles for the management of patients with SjS as three overarching, general consensus-based recommendations and 12 specific recommendations that form a logical sequence, starting with the management of the central triplet of symptoms (dryness, fatigue and pain) followed by the management of systemic disease. The recommendations address the use of topical oral (saliva substitutes) and ocular (artificial tear drops, topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical corticosteroids, topical CyA, serum tear drops) therapies, oral muscarinic agonists (pilocarpine, cevimeline), hydroxychloroquine, oral glucocorticoids, synthetic immunosuppressive agents (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, leflunomide and mycophenolate), and biological therapies (rituximab, abatacept and belimumab). For each recommendation, levels of evidence (mostly modest) and TF agreement (mostly very high) are provided. The 2019 EULAR recommendations are based on the evidence collected in the last 16 years in the management of primary 2002 SjS patients and on discussions between a large and broadly international TF. The recommendations synthesise current thinking on SjS treatment in a set of overarching principles and recommendations. We hope that the current recommendations will be broadly applied in clinical practice and/or serve as a template for national societies to develop local recommendations.

Gheita, T. A., S. M. El-Rabbat, and N. K. Mahmoud, "Fibromyalgia and Rheumatic Diseases. ", Fibrom Open Access, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 1-5, 2017.
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