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Al-Amery, K., M. Elhariri, A. Elsayed, G. El-Moghazy, R. Elhelw, H. El-Mahallawy, M. El Hariri, and D. Hamza, "Vancomycin-resistant isolated from camel meat and slaughterhouse workers in Egypt.", Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, vol. 8, pp. 129, 2019. Abstractvancomycin-resistant_staphylococcus_aureus_isolated_from_camel_meat_and_slaughterhouse_workers_in_egypt.pdf

Background: The emergence of vancomycin-resistant (VRSA) represents a challenge for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in both human and animals worldwide. Although VRSA has been detected in several animal species worldwide, data on the bacterial prevalence in dromedary camels and workers in camel slaughterhouses are scarce.

Methods: We investigated meat samples from 200 dromedary camel carcasses from three different abattoirs that were being prepared to be sent to the markets. Twenty hand swabs were voluntarily collected from the workers in the same abattoirs. Isolation and identification of the bacterial specimens from the samples were performed using conventional cultural techniques and biochemical identification and were confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility against nine antimicrobial agents commonly used in human and camels was tested using the disc diffusion method, and genetic analysis was performed by evaluating the gene in phenotypically oxacillin (OXA)- and cefoxitin (FOX)-resistant isolates. The resistance of to vancomycin (VAN) was tested by broth microdilution and confirmed by PCR targeting the and genes. The and genes were sequenced.

Result: was detected in both camel meat (29/200, 14.5%) and in abattoir workers (11/20, 55%). Of the collected samples, 27% (8/29, camel) and 54% (6/11, human) were identified as VRSA.All VRSA isolates carried both the and genes. Additionally, all VRSA isolates were also classified as methicillin-resistant (MRSA). The amplicons of the isolates from human and camel meat were homologous and clustered with a Chinese reference isolate sequence.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that VRSA is present in camel abattoirs in Egypt. Zoonotic transmission between animals and human is probable and reflects both a public health threat and a food safety concern.

Elhariri, M., R. Elhelw, S. Selim, M. Ibrahim, D. Hamza, and E. Hamza, "Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing serovar Heidelberg Isolated from Broiler Chickens and Poultry Workers: A Potential Hazard.", Foodborne pathogens and disease, 2019. Abstract

The current study investigated the emergence of multidrug-resistance (MDR), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing serovar Heidelberg in broiler chickens and workers in poultry farms. A total of 33 . Heidelberg isolates were recovered; 24 from the broiler cloacal swabs and 9 from the farm workers. All the . Heidelberg isolates were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents and for the presence of resistance and virulence genes. MDR strains were found in 95.8% (23/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of the broiler and human isolates, respectively. Among the MDR strains, 66.6% of the broiler isolates and 55.5% of the human isolates were ESBL producing. The majority of broiler isolates showed resistance to ampicillin (100%) and ceftriaxone (91.6%), followed by ceftazidime and imipenem, (87.5%) and (75%). The resistance rate of the human isolates to those antibiotics were lower than the broiler isolates; ampicillin (88.8%), ceftriaxone (66.6%), ceftazidime (77.7%), and imipenem (66.6%). The resistance determinant genes found among the isolated strains was , , , , , , and . The most detected ESBL genes for broiler and human isolates were (63.7%) and (56.6%), followed by (48.5%), (39.4%), and (27.3%); whereas and were not detected. The finding of chromosomal and plasmid virulence genes revealed that the A (100%), , C, and (72.8%), C (66.7%), (63.6%), B (54.6%), and A and A (3.0%), while A and R were absent. An elevated rate of MDR Heidelberg in chickens is of potential great health risk. This signifies the role of the food of animal origin as a reservoir of MDR that can affect the human health.