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Khairy, R., "Cyclooxygenase-2 and estrogen receptor-β as possible therapeutic targets in desmoid tumors", Kasr Al Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 24, issue 2, pp. 47 - 52, 2018/5/1. AbstractWebsite

Background and aim Desmoid tumors are mainly treated by surgical excision and radiotherapy, but the failure to achieve complete response has given rise to the need for investigating the role of possible target therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical detection of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) in desmoid tumors and to assess their correlation with available clinicopathologic variables.
Materials and methods A total of 17 desmoid tumor cases (11 abdominal, five extra-abdominal, and one intra-abdominal) were examined for immunohistochemical detection of COX-2 and ERβ using monoclonal antibodies. Toluidine blue staining was performed to confirm or exclude that COX-2 immunostained cells coincide with mast cells in co-localized sections. Correlation of results with available clinicopathologic variables was done and a P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results COX-2 was expressed in tumor cells in 92% of examined desmoid cases (16/17). Toluidine blue staining has shown that COX-2 immunostained cells do not coincide with the few metachromatically stained mast cells in co-localized sections. ERβ was expressed in 67.1% of tumor cells in desmoid cases (11/17); eight cases displayed high ERβ expression and three cases displayed low ERβ expression. No significant correlation was detected between ERβ or COX-2 immunohistochemical expression and patient’s age, sex, tumor size, site, margins status, and recurrence history (P>0.05).
Conclusion This study confirmed the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 and ERβ in tumor cells of the majority of studied desmoid cases. These results introduce COX-2 and ERβ as potential therapeutic targets in desmoid tumors. Further studies with a large sample size and follow-up are recommended to validate the current results.

E. Khalifa, S., R. A. Khairy, and R. Ramadan, "FGFR3, a marker suggestive of favorable prognosis in urothelial carcinoma", Comparative Clinical Pathology, 07, 2017. Abstract
Mostafa, R. R., and R. A. Khairy, "CD44 Expression in Meningioma and its Correlation with Proliferation Indices", Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 11, issue 8, pp. 12-15, 2017.
Ibrahim, B. B., M. M. Salem, R. A. Khairy, and R. A. R. Al Gunaid, "Expression of Podoplanin in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Dysplasia", J Clin Diagn Res, vol. 11, issue 5, pp. 31-35, 2017.
Khalifa, S. E., R. A. Khairy, and A. M. Bassam, "Expression of cathepsin D and BCL-2 in colorectal carcinoma, and their correlation with proliferation indices", Egyptian Journal of Pathology, vol. 36, issue 2, pp. 276–281, 2016.
Khairy, R. A., M. Salah, and S. E. Khalifa, "Expression of stem cell marker Bmi1 in invasive breast cancer and correlation with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, and ki67", Kasr Al Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 109-114, 2016. AbstractWebsite

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Currently, Bmi1 has been linked to a stem cell-like 11 gene expression microarray signature, predictive of tumor relapse, metastasis, and resistance to therapy in multiple human cancers.
The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemical expression of Bmi1 in invasive breast cancer, and its correlation with the clinicopathological features, hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)], HER2/neu score, Ki67 proliferation index, and molecular subtypes.
Patients and methods
Fifty invasive breast carcinomas were studied for immunohistochemical demonstration of Bmi1, ER, PR, HER2/neu, and Ki67. Cases were classified into four molecular subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, Her2-enriched, and triple negative).
Bmi1 expression was detected in 37 (74%) breast carcinoma cases, and a significant positive association with tumor size (P=0.03) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.01) was reported in this study. No significant correlation was detected between Bmi1 expression and other variables such as age, histologic type, grade, hormone receptor status, Her2 status, Ki67, and molecular subtypes (P>0.05).
Bmi1 stem cell marker was detected in a high percentage of breast cancer cells, and there was a significant positive association with tumor size and lymph node metastasis, which confirms its role in aggressiveness and dissemination of cancer cells. However, no correlations with ER, PR, Her2, Ki67 expressions, or molecular subtyping were found. Further studies are required to rule out the prognostic value of cancer stem cell marker Bmi1 and its therapeutic targeting.

Keywords: Bmi1, breast cancer, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, Ki67