Therapeutic advancement of simvastatin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SV-SLNs) in treatment of hyperlipidemia and attenuating hepatotoxicity, myopathy and apoptosis: Comprehensive study.

Citation:
Abo-Zalam, H. B., E. S. El-Denshary, R. M. Abdelsalam, I. A. Khalil, M. M. Khattab, and M. A. Hamzawy, "Therapeutic advancement of simvastatin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SV-SLNs) in treatment of hyperlipidemia and attenuating hepatotoxicity, myopathy and apoptosis: Comprehensive study.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 139, pp. 111494, 2021.

Abstract:

This study set out to optimize simvastatin (SV) in lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to improve bioavailability, efficacy and alleviate adverse effects. Simvastatin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SV-SLNs) were prepared by hot-melt ultrasonication method and optimized by box-Behnken experimental design. Sixty Wister albino rats were randomly assigned into six groups and treated daily for 16 weeks: control group, the group fed with 20 g of high-fat diet (HFD), group treated with vehicle (20 mg/kg, P.O.) for last four weeks, group treated with HFD and SV (20 mg/kg, P.O.) / or SV-SLNs (20 mg/kg/day, P.O.) / or SV-SLNs (5 mg/kg, P.O.) at last four weeks. Blood, liver tissues, and quadriceps muscles were collected for biochemical analysis, histological and immunohistochemical assays. The optimized SV-SLNS showed a particle-size 255.2 ± 7.7 nm, PDI 0.31 ± 0.09, Zeta-potential - 19.30 ± 3.25, and EE% 89.81 ± 2.1%. HFD showed severe changes in body weight liver functions, lipid profiles, atherogenic index (AIX), albumin, glucose, insulin level, alkaline phosphatase as well as muscle injury, oxidative stress biomarkers, and protein expression of caspase-3. Simvastatin treatment in animals feed with HFD showed a significant improvement of all tested parameters, but it was associated with hepatotoxicity, myopathy, and histological changes in quadriceps muscles. SV-SLNs exhibited a significant improvement of all biochemical, histological examinations, and immunohistochemical assays. SV-SLNs (5 mg/kg) treatment returns all measured parameters to control itself. These results represent that SV-SLNs is a promising candidate as a drug carrier for delivering SV with maximum efficacy and limited adverse reaction.

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