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El-Safty, H., A. Ismail, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. E. El-Sahar, and M. A. Saad, "Dapagliflozin diminishes memory and cognition impairment in Streptozotocin induced diabetes through its effect on Wnt/β-Catenin and CREB pathway.", Brain research bulletin, vol. 181, pp. 109-120, 2022. Abstract

Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic condition that affects a significant number of individuals with diabetes. Streptozotocin injection intraperitoneally to rodents produces pancreatic islet β-cell destruction causing hyperglycemia, which affect the brain leading to memory and cognition impairment. Dapagliflozin may be able to reverse beta-cell injury and alleviate this impairment. This effect may be via neuroprotective effect or possible involvement of the antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. Forty rats were divided into four groups as follows: The normal control group, STZ-induced diabetes group, STZ-induced diabetic rats followed by treatment with oral dapagliflozin group and normal rats treated with oral dapagliflozin. Behavioral tests (Object location memory task and Morris water maze) were performed. Serum biomarkers (blood glucose and insulin) were measured and then the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. In the hippocampus the followings were determined; calmodulin, ca-calmodulin kinase Ⅳ (CaMKIV), protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein to determine the transcription factor CREB and its signaling pathway also Wnt signaling pathway and related parameters (WnT, B-catenin, lymphoid enhancer binding factor LEF, glycogen synthase kinase 3β). Moreover, nuclear receptor-related protein-1, acetylcholine and its hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholine esterase, oxidative stress parameter malondialdehyde (MDA) and apoptotic parameter caspase-3 were determined. STZ was able to cause destruction to pancreatic β-cells which was reflected on glucose levels causing diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy was clear in the rats performing the behavioral tests. Memory and cognition parameters in the hippocampus were negatively affected. Oxidative stress and apoptotic parameter were elevated while the electrical activity was declined. Dapagliflozin was able to reverse the previously mentioned parameters and behavior. Thus, to say dapagliflozin significantly showed neuroprotective action along with antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties.

Hussien, Y. A., D. I. N. A. F. Mansour, S. A. Nada, S. S. Abd El-Rahman, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, and D. M. El-Tanbouly, "Linagliptin attenuates thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats: Modulation of C/EBP-β and CX3CL1/Fractalkine, neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress and behavioral defects.", Life sciences, vol. 295, pp. 120378, 2022. Abstract

The degree of neuroinflammation is correlated mainly with cognitive and motor dysfunctions associated with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The current study was conducted to explore the possible protective potential of the antidiabetic drug; linagliptin (LNG; 10 or 20 mg/kg) against HE induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. Animals received two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of TAA (200 mg/kg) on alternate days. Neurobehavioral tests were performed 24 h after the last injection, and rats were sacrificed 24 h later (48 h). The higher LNG dose more effectively protected against TAA-induced changes. Administration of LNG for 15 days before TAA notably mitigated TAA-induced acute liver injury and HE, as verified by the marked improvement in motor coordination, locomotor activity, and cognition function. LNG maintained both brain and liver weight indices and retracted the hyperammonemia with a prominent suppression in liver transaminases. This was accompanied by an evident modulation of hepatic and hippocampal oxidative stress markers; GSH and MDA. LNG attenuated both liver and hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine; IL-1β while augmented the anti-inflammatory one; IL-10. It noticeably reduced hepatic and hippocampal COX-2 and TNF-α and maintained hepatic and brain architectures. It also induced a marked decrease in the inflammation-regulated transcription factor, C/EBP-β, with a profound increase in hippocampi's anti-inflammatory chemokine, CX3CL1/Fractalkine. LNG modulated TAA-induced disturbances in hippocampal amino acids; glutamate, and GABA with a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF. In conclusion, the regulatory effect of LNG on neuroinflammatory signaling underlines its neuroprotective effect against progressive encephalopathy accompanying acute liver injury.

Khalifa, M., R. M. Abdelsalam, M. M. Safar, and H. F. Zaki, "Phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitor, Cilostazol, improved memory impairment in aluminum chloride-treated rats: modulation of cAMP/CREB pathway.", Inflammopharmacology, 2022. Abstract

The most prevalent type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is currently incurable. Existing treatments for Alzheimer's disease, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are only effective for symptom relief. Disease-modifying medications for Alzheimer's disease are desperately required, given the enormous burdens that the disease places on individuals and communities. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors are gaining a lot of attention in the research community because of their potential in treating age-related cognitive decline. Cilostazol is a selective PDE III inhibitor used as antiplatelet agent through cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation pathway (cAMP/CREB). The neuroprotective effect of cilostazol in AD-like cognitive decline in rats was investigated in this study. After 2 months of intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg aluminum chloride, Morris water maze and Y-maze (behavioral tests) were performed. After that, histological and biochemical examinations of the hippocampal region were carried out. Aluminum chloride-treated rats showed histological, biochemical, and behavioral changes similar to Alzheimer's disease. Cilostazol improved rats' behavioral and histological conditions, raised neprilysin level while reduced levels of amyloid-beta protein and phosphorylated tau protein. It also decreased the hippocampal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor-kappa B, FAS ligand, acetylcholinesterase content, and malondialdehyde. These outcomes demonstrate the protective activity of cilostazol versus aluminum-induced memory impairment.

Shouman, M. M., R. M. Abdelsalam, M. M. Tawfick, S. A. Kenawy, and M. M. El-Naa, "Antisense Tissue Factor Oligodeoxynucleotides Protected Diethyl Nitrosamine/Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis Through Toll Like Receptor4-Tissue Factor-Protease Activated Receptor1 Pathway.", Frontiers in pharmacology, vol. 12, pp. 676608, 2021. Abstract

Tissue factor (TF) is a blood coagulation factor that has several roles in many non-coagulant pathways involved in different pathological conditions such as angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Coagulation and inflammation are crosslinked with liver fibrosis where protease-activated receptor1 (PAR1) and toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) play a key role. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides are strong modulators of gene expression. In the present study, antisense TF oligodeoxynucleotides (TFAS) was evaluated in treating liver fibrosis via suppression of TF gene expression. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by a single administration of N-diethyl nitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg; i. p.) followed by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 3 ml/kg; s. c.) once weekly for 6 weeks. Following fibrosis induction, liver TF expression was significantly upregulated along with liver enzymes activities and liver histopathological deterioration. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expression, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and hydroxyproline content and collagen deposition were significantly elevated in the liver. Blocking of TF expression by TFAS injection (2.8 mg/kg; s. c.) once weekly for 6 weeks significantly restored liver enzymes activities and improved histopathological features along with decreasing the elevated α-SMA, TGF-1β, TNF-α, hydroxyproline and collagen. Moreover, TFAS decreased the expression of both PAR1 and TLR4 that were induced by liver fibrosis. In conclusion, we reported that blockage of TF expression by TFAS improved inflammatory and fibrotic changes associated with CCl4+DEN intoxication. In addition, we explored the potential crosslink between the TF, PAR1 and TLR4 in liver fibrogenesis. These findings offer a platform on which recovery from liver fibrosis could be mediated through targeting TF expression.

Abo-Zalam, H. B., R. M. Abdelsalam, R. F. Abdel-Rahman, M. F. Abd-Ellah, and M. M. Khattab, "In Vivo Investigation of the Ameliorating Effect of Tempol against MIA-Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats: Involvement of TGF-β1/SMAD3/NOX4 Cue.", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 26, issue 22, 2021. Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease characterized by structural, functional, and metabolic deteriorations of the whole joint and periarticular tissues. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible effects of tempol on knee OA induced by the chemical chondrotoxic monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) which closely mimics both the pain and structural changes associated with human OA. Rats were administrated oral tempol (100 mg/kg) one week post-MIA injection (3 mg/50 μL saline) at the right knee joints for 21 consecutive days. Tempol improved motor performance and debilitated the MIA-related radiological and histological alterations. Moreover, it subsided the knee joint swelling. Tempol decreased the cartilage degradation-related biomarkers as matrix metalloproteinase-13, bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), and fibulin-3. The superoxide dismutase mimetic effect of tempol was accompanied by decreased NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), inflammatory mediators, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), over-released transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Tempol decreased the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). On the molecular level, tempol reduced the phosphorylated protein levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and small mother against decapentaplegic 3 homologs (SMAD3). These findings suggest the promising role of tempol in ameliorating MIA-induced knee OA in rats via collateral suppression of the catabolic signaling cascades including TGF-β1/SMAD3/NOX4, and NOX4/p38MAPK/NF-κB and therefore modulation of oxidative stress, catabolic inflammatory cascades, chondrocyte metabolic homeostasis.

Abd-ElRaouf, A., A. S. Nada, N. E. - D. A. Mohammed, H. A. Amer, S. S. Abd-ElRahman, R. M. Abdelsalam, and H. A. Salem, "Low dose gamma irradiation attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: role of NF-κB signaling pathway.", International journal of radiation biology, vol. 97, issue 5, pp. 632-641, 2021. Abstract

PURPOSE: Cyclophosphamide (Cyp) is one of the most commonly used, wide spectrum chemotherapeutic agents. Cyp has multi-organ toxicities that are dose limiting, thus it's mostly used in chemotherapeutic combinations. Radiation is well known as a hazardous sort of energy, recent studies are interested in studying the beneficial therapeutic effects of low-dose gamma radiation. This study examined the protective effect of two different doses/dose-rates of irradiation either alone or combined with telmisartan against Cyp-induced cardiotoxicity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into seven groups; (1): Control, (2): Cyp, (3-4): 0.05 Gy low dose rate (LDR) irradiation, 0.25 Gy high dose rate (HDR) irradiation, respectively, prior to Cyp dose, (5-7): telmisartan either alone or with 0.05 Gy LDR-irradiation or 0.25 Gy HDR-irradiation, respectively, prior to Cyp dose. The current investigation studied the effect of Cyp alone or combined with different treatment regimens on serum cTn-I and LDH, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway (p65/IκB/IKK-α/IKK-ß) in the myocardium. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed in addition to histopathological examination of the heart.

RESULTS: Low-dose irradiation attenuated cardiac enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB content, and histology, in both low and HDRs. Furthermore, the combination of low-dose irradiation with telmisartan (an angiotensin-II receptor type-1 blocker and a known cardio-protective drug) offered the best histological results.

CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose irradiation-induced amelioration is partially but not completely through canonical activation of NF-κB, and may have another atypical pathway. While telmisartan probably ameliorates NF-κB totally through canonical pathway.

Elgohary, R., R. M. Abdelsalam, O. M. E. Abdel-Salam, M. M. Khattab, N. A. Salem, Z. A. El-Khyat, and F. A. Morsy, "Protective effect of cannabinoids on gastric mucosal lesions induced by water immersion restrain stress in rats.", Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, vol. 24, issue 9, pp. 1182-1189, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the impact of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on the mucosal lesion progress in the stomach induced by water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats subjected to WIRS for 4 hr were treated with Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), CBR1 agonist (NADA, 1 mg/kg), CBR1 antagonist (Rimonabant, 1 mg/kg), CBR2 agonist (GW405833 1 mg/kg) or CBR2 antagonist (AM630, 1 mg/kg SC) 30 min before WIRS. Microscopic lesions, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines biomarkers, and (Myeloperoxidase) MPO in gastric tissues were determined.

RESULTS: Results indicated development of severe gastric lesions with a substantial increase in the contents of (nitric oxide) NO, (malondialdehyde) MDA, (interleukin-1 beta) IL-1β, MPO, (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) TNF-α, and a significant fall in the content of GSH and the activity of PON-1 after WIRS.

CONCLUSION: Treatment with NADA and AM630 protected gastric tissues against ulcers as demonstrated by a decrease in the contents of MDA, TNF-α, MPO, and IL-1β along with an increase in the content of PON-1 activity and GSH in the stomach tissues. On the other hand, treatment with SR141716A or GW405833 showed no protective effects on ulcers development. It seems that cannabinoids exert their antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects against WIRS-induced gastric ulcers by activation of CB1R.

Abo-Zalam, H. B., E. S. El-Denshary, R. M. Abdelsalam, I. A. Khalil, M. M. Khattab, and M. A. Hamzawy, "Therapeutic advancement of simvastatin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SV-SLNs) in treatment of hyperlipidemia and attenuating hepatotoxicity, myopathy and apoptosis: Comprehensive study.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 139, pp. 111494, 2021. Abstract

This study set out to optimize simvastatin (SV) in lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to improve bioavailability, efficacy and alleviate adverse effects. Simvastatin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SV-SLNs) were prepared by hot-melt ultrasonication method and optimized by box-Behnken experimental design. Sixty Wister albino rats were randomly assigned into six groups and treated daily for 16 weeks: control group, the group fed with 20 g of high-fat diet (HFD), group treated with vehicle (20 mg/kg, P.O.) for last four weeks, group treated with HFD and SV (20 mg/kg, P.O.) / or SV-SLNs (20 mg/kg/day, P.O.) / or SV-SLNs (5 mg/kg, P.O.) at last four weeks. Blood, liver tissues, and quadriceps muscles were collected for biochemical analysis, histological and immunohistochemical assays. The optimized SV-SLNS showed a particle-size 255.2 ± 7.7 nm, PDI 0.31 ± 0.09, Zeta-potential - 19.30 ± 3.25, and EE% 89.81 ± 2.1%. HFD showed severe changes in body weight liver functions, lipid profiles, atherogenic index (AIX), albumin, glucose, insulin level, alkaline phosphatase as well as muscle injury, oxidative stress biomarkers, and protein expression of caspase-3. Simvastatin treatment in animals feed with HFD showed a significant improvement of all tested parameters, but it was associated with hepatotoxicity, myopathy, and histological changes in quadriceps muscles. SV-SLNs exhibited a significant improvement of all biochemical, histological examinations, and immunohistochemical assays. SV-SLNs (5 mg/kg) treatment returns all measured parameters to control itself. These results represent that SV-SLNs is a promising candidate as a drug carrier for delivering SV with maximum efficacy and limited adverse reaction.

Badawi, H. M., R. M. Abdelsalam, O. M. E. Abdel-Salam, E. R. Youness, N. M. Shaffie, and E. - E. D. S. Eldenshary, "Bee venom attenuates neurodegeneration and motor impairment and modulates the response to L-dopa or rasagiline in a mice model of Parkinson's disease.", Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, vol. 23, issue 12, pp. 1628-1638, 2020. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of bee venom, a form of alternative therapy, on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice. Moreover, the possible modulation by bee venom of the effect of L-dopa/carbidopa or rasagiline was examined.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rotenone (1.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously; SC) was administered every other day for two weeks and at the same time mice received the vehicle (DMSO, SC), bee venom (0.065, 0.13, and 0.26 mg/kg; intradermal; ID), L-dopa/carbidopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneal; IP), L-dopa/carbidopa+bee venom (0.13 mg/kg, ID), rasagiline (1 mg/kg, IP) or rasagiline+bee venom (0.13 mg/kg, ID). Then, wire hanging and staircase tests were performed and mice were euthanized and brains' striata separated. Oxidative stress biomarkers namely, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Additionally, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and dopamine (DA) were evaluated. Brain histopathological changes and caspase-3- expression were done.

RESULTS: Bee venom significantly enhanced motor performance and inhibited rotenone-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, observed as a reduction in both MDA and NO along with increasing GSH, PON-1, and TAC. Besides, bee venom decreased MCP-1, TNF-α, and caspase-3 expression together with an increase in BuChE activity and DA content.

CONCLUSION: Bee venom alone or in combination with L-dopa/carbidopa or rasagiline alleviated neuronal degeneration compared with L-dopa/carbidopa or rasagiline treatment only. Bee venom via its antioxidant and cytokine reducing potentials might be of value either alone or as adjunctive therapy in the management of PD.

Mohamed, Y. S., R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz, and D. M. El-Tanbouly, "Regulation of liver regeneration by prostaglandin E and thromboxane A following partial hepatectomy in rats.", Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology, vol. 393, issue 8, pp. 1437-1446, 2020. Abstract

The implication of prostaglandin E (PGE) and thromboxane A (TXA) in the striking process of liver regeneration has been previously reported. However, their exact roles and downstream signals have not been utterly revealed. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore whether inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived PGE by celecoxib and blocking of TXA action by seratrodast could alter the progression of liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) in rats. Celecoxib (20 mg/kg/day) and seratrodast (2 mg/kg/day) were given orally 1 h before PHx and then daily till the end of experiment (1, 3, or 7 days after the operation). Interestingly, celecoxib-treated rats showed a further increase in interleukin-6, p65 nuclear factor κB, and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as compared with PHx control rats. Furthermore, the liver contents of growth factors as well as β-catenin and cyclin D1protein expressions were also enhanced by celecoxib. Accordingly, celecoxib significantly improved hepatic proliferation as indicated by the increase in Ki67 expression and liver index. Contrariwise, seratrodast hindered the normal regeneration process and completely abolished the proliferative effect of celecoxib. In conclusion, TXA has a major role in liver regeneration that could greatly mediate the triggering effect of celecoxib on hepatocytes proliferation following PHx.

El Khashab, I. H., R. M. Abdelsalam, A. I. Elbrairy, and A. S. Attia, "Chrysin attenuates global cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 112, pp. 108619, 2019 Feb 20. Abstract

Global cerebral ischemia is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Several biomechanisms play a role in the pathology of cerebral ischemia reperfusion damage, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and excitotoxicity. Chrysin, a natural flavonoid with many important biological activities, was investigated in the present study for its possible neuroprotective properties in a rat model of global ischemia reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: sham-operated, ischemia/reperfusion, and chrysin (30 mg/kg) groups. All animals were subjected to ischemia for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min, except for the sham-operated group. Rats were decapitated, then both hippocampi were rapidly excised to evaluate several biomarkers that reflect ischemic injury. The obtained results showed that pre-treatment with chrysin attenuated ischemia-induced oxidative stress by: (i) restoring the glutathione level; and (ii) depressing the levels/activities of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, the hippocampal NADPH, as well as the xanthine oxidase. Exposure to chrysin also suppressed the inflammation accompanying the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage, through increasing the interleukin-10 level, while decreasing the levels of both interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Moreover, an increase in Bcl2 and a decrease in both BAX and Hsp90 levels were recorded following chrysin exposure, which was also accompanied with elevated glutamate and aspartate levels. In conclusion, chrysin has demonstrated an anti-ischemic potential, through attenuation of the mechanisms underlying I/R injury. These data add to the knowledge on the significance of natural flavonoids as neuroprotective agents.

Hassan, N. F., S. A. Nada, A. Hassan, M. R. El-Ansary, M. Y. Al-Shorbagy, and R. M. Abdelsalam, "Saroglitazar Deactivates the Hepatic LPS/TLR4 Signaling Pathway and Ameliorates Adipocyte Dysfunction in Rats with High-Fat Emulsion/LPS Model-Induced Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.", Inflammation, 2019 Feb 09. Abstract

The most epidemic liver disorder non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation with hepatocellular damage. Recently, it is predictable to be the extensive cause for liver transplantation. The absence of an approved therapeutic agent for NASH is the reason for investigating saroglitazar (SAR) which showed promising effects as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in recent studies on NASH. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of SAR on NASH induced in rats by the administration of high-fat emulsion (HFE) and small doses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 5 weeks. Rats were divided into three groups: negative control group (saline and standard rodent chow), model group (HFE(10 ml/kg/day, oral gavage) + LPS(0.5 mg/kg/week, i.p)), and SAR-treated group (HFE(10 ml/kg/day, oral gavage) + LPS(0.5 mg/kg/week, i.p.) + SAR(4 mg/kg/day, oral gavage) starting at week 3.Treatment with SAR successfully ameliorated the damaging effects of HFE with LPS, by counteracting body weight gain and biochemically by normalization of liver function parameters activity, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR) score, lipid profile levels, and histopathological examination. Significant changes in adipokine levels were perceived, resulting in a significant decline in serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level concurrent with adiponectin normalization. The positive effects observed for SAR on NASH are due to the downregulation of the LPS/TLR4 pathway, as indicated by the suppression of hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NF-κB, TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. In conclusion, this work verified that SAR ameliorates NASH through deactivation of the hepatic LPS/TLR4 pathway and inhibition of adipocyte dysfunction.

Essam, R. M., L. A. Ahmed, R. M. Abdelsalam, and A. S. El-Khatib, "Phosphodiestrase-1 and 4 inhibitors ameliorate liver fibrosis in rats: Modulation of cAMP/CREB/TLR4 inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways.", Life sciences, 2019. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Phosphodiestrase (PDE) enzymes are suggested to play a leading role in fibrogenesis of liver where studies showed the possible implication of PDE 1 & 4 in liver injury proposing them as possible targets for treating liver fibrosis.

AIM: The present study was designed to investigate, for the first time, the possible therapeutic effects of selective inhibitors of PDE-1 (vinpocetine) and PDE-4 (roflumilast) in liver fibrosis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rats.

MAIN METHODS: Rats were given DEN (100 mg/kg, i.p.) once weekly for 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Vinpocetine (10 mg/kg/day) or roflumilast (0.5 mg/kg/day) was then orally administered for 2 weeks.

KEY FINDINGS: Vinpocetine significantly suppressed the contents of hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) whereas roflumilast normalized them. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) content and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were markedly decreased whereas cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein expression was significantly elevated by both treatments. Additionally, vinpocetine and roflumilast up-regulated the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) receptor where roflumilast showed better results. PDE1 and 4 activities were inhibited by vinpocetine and roflumilast, respectively. The superior results offered by roflumilast could be related to the higher cAMP level obtained relative to vinpocetine.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our study manifested the up-regulation of PDE enzymes (1 & 4) in liver fibrosis and addressed the therapeutic role of vinpocetine and roflumilast as PDEIs through a cAMP-mediated TLR4 inflammatory and fibrogenic signaling pathways.

Zaki, A. M., D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, and H. F. Zaki, "Plumbagin ameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: Role of high mobility group box 1 in inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 106, pp. 785-793, 2018 Oct. Abstract

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a pathological process which magnifies with the ensuing inflammatory response and endures with the increase of oxidants especially during reperfusion. The present study was conducted to assess the possible modulatory effects of plumbagin, the active constituent extracted from the roots of traditional medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L., on the dire role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as well as the associated inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death following hepatic I/R. Four groups of rats were included: sham-operated, sham-operated treated with plumbagin, I/R (30 min ischemia and 1 h reperfusion) and I/R treated with plumbagin. Pretreatment with plumbagin markedly improved hepatic function and structural integrity compared to the I/R group, as manifested by depressed plasma transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities as well as alleviated tissue pathological lesions. Plumbagin prominently hampered HMGB1 expression and subsequently quelled inflammatory cascades, as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. It also interrupted reactive oxygen species (ROS)-HMGB1loop as evident by restored liver reduced glutathione (GSH), elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, along with decreased liver lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, plumbagin significantly ameliorated apoptosis by amending the mRNA expressions of both anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic (Bax). The present results revealed that plumbagin is endowed with hepatoprotective activity ascribed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties which are partially mediated through dampening of HMGB1 expression.

Mousavi, M. P. S., M. K. Abd El-Rahman, A. M. Mahmoud, R. M. Abdelsalam, and P. Bühlmann, "In Situ Sensing of the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine in a Dynamic Range of 1 nM to 1 mM.", ACS sensors, 2018 Nov 19. Abstract

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the dynamics of ACh concentration changes and kinetics of ACh degradation in the living brain is crucial to unravel the pathophysiology of such diseases and the rational design of therapeutics. In this work, an electrochemical sensor capable of dynamic, label-free, selective, and in situ detection of ACh in a range of 1 nM to 1 mM (with temporal resolution of less than one second) was developed. The sensor was employed for the direct detection of ACh in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and rat brain homogenate, without any prior separation steps. A potentiometric receptor-doped ion-selective electrode (ISE) with selectivity for ACh was designed by taking advantage of the positive charge of ACh. The dynamic range, limit of detection (LOD), and the selectivity of the sensor were optimized stepwise by (i) screening of hydrophobic biomimetic calixarenes to identify receptors that strongly bind to ACh based on shape-selective multitopic recognition, (ii) doping of the ISE sensing membrane with an ACh-binding hydrophobic calixarene to enable selective detection of ACh in complex matrices, (iii) utilizing a hydrophilic calixarene in the inner filling solution of the ISE to buffer the concentration of ACh and, thereby, lower the LOD of the sensor, and (iv) introducing a surface treatment step prior to the measurement by placing the sensor for ∼1 min in a solution of a hydrophilic calixarene to lower the LOD of the sensor even further.

Salama, R. A. A., R. M. Abdelsalam, O. M. E. Abdel-Salam, M. M. Khattab, N. A. Salem, Z. A. El-Khyat, F. A. Morsy, and E. - E. D. S. Eldenshary, "Modulation of gastric acid secretion by cannabinoids in rats.", Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology, pp. e22256, 2018 Nov 01. Abstract

The current study aimed to evaluate the role of cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of gastric acid secretion and oxidative stress in gastric mucosa. To fulfill this aim, gastric acid secretion stimulated with histamine (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [SC]), 2-deoxy- d-glucose (D-G) (200 mg/kg, intravenous) or -carbachol (4 μg/kg, SC) in the 4-hour pylorus-ligated rats. The CB1R agonist ( N-arachidonoyl dopamine, 1 mg/kg, SC) inhibited gastric acid secretion stimulated by D-G and carbachol but not in histamine, reduced pepsin content, and increased mucin secretion. Furthermore, it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents with an increase in glutathione (GSH) and paraoxonase 1 (PON-1). Meanwhile, CB2R antagonist (AM630, 1 mg/kg, SC) inhibited gastric acid secretion stimulated by D-G and reduced MDA and NO contents with an increase in GSH and PON-1. Meanwhile, CB1R antagonist rimonabant or CB2R agonist GW 405833 had no effect on stimulated gastric acid secretion. Therefore, both CB1R agonist and CB2R antagonist may exert antisecretory and antioxidant potential in the stomach.

Mansour, H. M., A. A. A. Salama, R. M. Abdel-Salam, N. A. Ahmed, N. N. Yassen, and H. F. Zaki, "The anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of tadalafil in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.", Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, vol. 96, issue 12, pp. 1308-1317, 2018 Dec. Abstract

Liver fibrosis is a health concern that leads to organ failure mediated via production of inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic biomarkers. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced by administration of TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice weekly for 6 weeks. Serum transaminases activities, liver inflammatory cytokines, fibrotic biomarkers, and liver histopathology were assessed. TAA induced marked histopathological changes in liver tissues coupled with elevations in serum transaminases activities. Furthermore, hepatic content of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 beta were elevated, together with a reduction of interleukin-10 in the liver. In addition, TAA increased hepatic contents of transforming growth factor-beta, hydroxyproline, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and gene expression of collagen-1. Pretreatment with tadalafil protected against TAA-induced liver fibrosis, in a dose-dependent manner, as proved by the alleviation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers. The effects of tadalafil were comparable with that of silymarin, a natural antioxidant, and could be assigned to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties.

Zaki, A. M., D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, and H. F. Zaki, "Plumbagin ameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: role of high mobility group box 1 in inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis", Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 106: Elsevier Masson, pp. 785–793, 2018. Abstract
Mahfouz, M. M., R. M. Abdelsalam, M. A. Masoud, H. A. Mansour, O. A. Ahmed-Farid, and S. A. Kenawy, "The neuroprotective effect of mesenchymal stem cells on an experimentally induced model for multiple sclerosis in mice.", Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology, vol. 31, issue 9, 2017 Sep. Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating neurodegenerative central nervous system disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by the one-time intraperitoneal injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 1 × 10 and 14-day intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (MP) 40 mg/kg in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by intradermal injection of rat spinal cord homogenate with complete Freund's adjuvant in Swiss mice. Results of MSCs and MP-treated mice showed a significantly milder disease and fewer clinical scores compared to control mice. They suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase and increased interleukin 10, whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide brain contents were reduced to comparable levels between treatment groups. Brain content of GSH was significantly higher in MSCs-treated mice than control mice. It is evident that MSCs have relevant prophylactic effect in an animal model of MS and might represent a valuable tool for stem cell based therapy in MS.

Abdelkader, N. F., M. A. Saad, and R. M. Abdelsalam, "Neuroprotective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin-associated depressive-like behavior in rats.", Journal of neurochemistry, vol. 141, issue 3, pp. 449-460, 2017 May. Abstract

One-third of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment often display symptoms of depression leading to poor adherence and decreased quality of life. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin-associated depressive symptoms in adult male rats. Nebivolol is a highly cardioselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker that possesses endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties and antioxidant capacities. Animals were allocated into four groups. Group one was given aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control, group two was given nebivolol (10 mg/kg p.o., daily), group three was given cisplatin (2 mg/kg i.p. once per week) for 10 consecutive weeks and group four was treated with cisplatin concomitantly with nebivolol as per above schedule. Cisplatin-treated rats showed an increase in both depressive-like behaviors in open-field and forced swimming tests. In addition, histopathological examination revealed cortical encephalomalacia along with hippocampal neuronal degeneration and kidney dysfunction. In parallel, cisplatin administration prominently reduced GABA and elevated glutamate levels in the cortical and hippocampal tissues. Furthermore, it resulted in a significant decline in cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nitric oxide contents concomitantly with a marked decrease in endothelial- and an increase in inducible-nitric oxide synthase genes expression. On the other hand, treatment with nebivolol effectively mitigated the aforementioned cisplatin-associated behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations without changing its antitumor activity as evidenced by sulforhodamine B cell survival assay. Taken together, our results suggest that nebivolol may offer a promising approach for alleviating depressive symptoms associated with the use of cisplatin.

Al-Ghobashy, M. A., A. N. ElMeshad, R. M. Abdelsalam, M. M. Nooh, M. Al-Shorbagy, and G. Laible, "Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Myelin Basic Protein Nano Therapeutic Vaccine in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice Animal Model.", Scientific reports, vol. 7, pp. 46468, 2017 Apr 20. Abstract

Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. Following optimization of nanoformulation, discrete spherical, rough-surfaced rhMBP NPs with high entrapment efficiency and controlled release pattern were obtained. Results indicated that rhMBP was loaded into and electrostatically adsorbed onto the surface of NPs. Subcutaneous administration of free or rhMBP NPs before EAE-induction reduced the average behavioral score in EAE mice and showed only mild histological alterations and preservation of myelin sheath, with rhMBP NPs showing increased protection. Moreover, analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) in mice brains revealed that pretreatment with free or rhMBP NPs significantly protected against induced inflammation.

IN CONCLUSION: i) rhMBP ameliorated EAE symptoms in EAE animal model, ii) nanoformulation significantly enhanced efficacy of rhMBP as a therapeutic vaccine and iii) clinical investigations are required to demonstrate the activity of rhMBP NPs as a therapeutic vaccine for MS.

Atwa, A., R. Hegazy, R. M. Abdelsalam, N. Yassin, and S. A. Kenawy, "Protective Effects of the Third Generation Vasodilatory Βeta-Blocker Nebivolol against D-Galactosamine-Induced Hepatorenal Syndrome in Rats", Macedonian journal of medical sciences, vol. 5, issue 7, pp. 880, 2017.
Abdelkader, N. F., M. A. Saad, and R. M. Abdelsalam, "Neuroprotective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin-associated depressive-like behavior in rats", Journal of neurochemistry, vol. 141, no. 3: Wiley Online Library, pp. 449–460, 2017. Abstract
Hammam, O. A., N. Elkhafif, Y. M. Attia, M. T. Mansour, M. M. Elmazar, R. M. Abdelsalam, S. A. Kenawy, and A. S. El-Khatib, "Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with praziquantel as a potential therapy for Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis.", Scientific reports, vol. 6, pp. 21005, 2016 Feb 15. Abstract

Liver fibrosis is one of the most serious consequences of S. mansoni infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effect of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) combined with praziquantel (PZQ) in S. mansoni-infected mice. S. mansoni-infected mice received early (8(th) week post infection) and late (16(th) week post infection) treatment with WJMSCs, alone and combined with oral PZQ. At the 10(th) month post infection, livers were collected for subsequent flow cytometric, histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical, gene expression, and gelatin zymographic studies. After transplantation, WJMSCs differentiated into functioning liver-like cells as evidenced by their ability to express human hepatocyte-specific markers. Regression of S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis was also observed in transplanted groups, as evidenced by histopathological, morphometric, and gelatin zymographic results besides decreased expression of three essential contributors to liver fibrosis in this particular model; alpha smooth muscle actin, collagen-I, and interleukin-13. PZQ additionally enhanced the beneficial effects observed in WJMSCs-treated groups. Our results suggest that combining WJMSCs to PZQ caused better enhancement in S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis, compared to using each alone.

Ahmed, L. A., H. A. Darwish, R. M. Abdelsalam, and H. A. A. Amin, "Role of Rho Kinase Inhibition in the Protective Effect of Fasudil and Simvastatin Against 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Striatal Neurodegeneration and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats.", Molecular neurobiology, vol. 53, issue 6, pp. 3927-3938, 2016 08. Abstract

3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity is an experimental model which mimics the pathology and motor abnormalities seen in Huntington's disease (HD) in human. The present investigation was directed to estimate the role of rho kinase (ROCK) inhibition in the possible protective effect of fasudil and simvastatin in 3-NP-induced striatal neurodegeneration in rats. Animals were injected s.c. with 3-NP (20 mg/kg/day) for 1 week with or without administration of fasudil (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.). At the end of experiment, motor and behavioral abnormalities were evaluated. Animals were then sacrificed for measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and caspase-3 activities in striatum. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level and protein expressions of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), ROCK, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS), Bax, and Bcl-2 were estimated. Finally, histological changes as demonstrated by striatum injury score, glial activation, and percentage of altered mitochondria were assessed. Both fasudil and simvastatin effectively inhibited 3-NP-induced behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes through inhibition of ROCK activity. However, fasudil provided more amelioration in histological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential and SDH activity in addition to p-Akt and PGC-1α protein expressions. The present study highlights a significant role of ROCK/p-Akt/eNOS pathway in the protective effects of fasudil and simvastatin on neurotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 3-NP in rats. Thus, specific inhibition of ROCK may be considered a promising new approach in the management of HD.