Yehia, R. S., and S. A. Altwaim, "An Insight into In Vitro Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Apoptosis Induction Potential of Mangiferin, a Bioactive Compound Derived from Mangifera indica", Plants, vol. 12, no. 7, 2023. AbstractWebsite

{Due to their low cost, toxicity, and health risks, medicinal plants have come to be seen as useful products and sources of biologically active compounds. Mangifera indica L., a medicinal plant with a long history, has a high bioactive metabolites content. Mangiferin (C19H18O11) is primary isolated from M. indica’s leaves, which has many pharmacological benefits. In this investigation, ultrasonic-assisted extraction with ethanol as the extraction solvent was applied to obtain mangiferin from a local type of M. indica leaves. HPLC was performed after a dichloromethane-ethyl acetate liquid–liquid fractionation method. Further, UV–vis, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy were utilized to elucidate the structure. Interestingly, purified mangiferin displayed promising antimicrobial efficacy against a diverse variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens with MICs of 1.95–62.5 and 1.95–31.25 µg/mL, respectively. Time–kill patterns also showed that mangiferin had both bactericidal and fungicidal action. Furthermore, it exhibited strong radical dosage-dependent scavenging activity (IC50 = 17.6 μg/mL) compared to vitamin C (Vc

Almustafa, H. I., and R. S. Yehia, "Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and DNA Damage Protection Activities of Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis neglecta Isolated from Ziziphus spina-christi Medicinal Plant", Microorganisms, vol. 11, no. 1, 2023. AbstractWebsite

{Fungal endophytes are friendly microorganisms that colonize plants and are important in the interactions between plants and their environment. They generate valuable secondary metabolites that are valuable to both plants and humans. Endophytic fungi with bioactivities were isolated from the leaves of the medicinal plant Ziziphus spina-christi. An efficient isolate was selected and identified as Pestalotiopsis neglecta based on nucleotide sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2) of the 18S rRNA gene (NCBI accession number OP529850); the 564 bp had 99 to 100% similarity with P. neglecta MH860161.1, AY682935.1, KP689121.1, and MG572407.1, according to the BLASTn analysis, following preliminary phytochemical and antifungal screening. The biological activities of this fungus’ crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract were assessed. With an efficient radical scavenging activity against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and an IC50 value of 36.6 µg mL−1, P. neglecta extract has shown its potential as an antioxidant. Moreover, it displayed notable cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 (breast carcinoma

Yehia, R. S., "{Evaluation of the biological activities of β‐glucan isolated from Lentinula edodes}", Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 317-329, 08, 2022. AbstractWebsite

{Lentinula edodes (shiitake) is an edible mushroom that contains many constituents and β‐glucan is considered a major polysaccharide. This study, therefore, aimed to characterize β‐glucan and evaluate its activities. Fresh fruit bodies of L. edodes were used for β‐glucan extraction and followed by analyses via Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and high performance liquid chromatography confirming its characteristic structure. For evaluating biological activities of β‐glucan, different concentrations (0·1–3·5 mg ml−1) were assessed. The optimal dose was 3·5 mg ml−1 that showed the highest scavenging radical ability (75·3\%) confirms antioxidant activity, strong inhibition of the peroxyl radical (80·9\%) to inhibit lipid peroxidation, elevation the inhibition percentage of both α‐amylase (73·4\%) and α‐glucosidase (70·3\%) indicates the antidiabetic properties, and highest AFB1 reduction (88\%) which ensured the aflatoxin‐detoxifying ability. In addition, antifungal activity of β‐glucan was evaluated to inhibit sporulation process in Aspergillus niger and recorded with minimum inhibitory concentration of 2·5 mg ml−1 and minimum fungicidal concentration of 3 mg ml−1. In a dose‐dependent manner, higher concentration of β‐glucan affects viability of tumour cells concomitant induces potent anti‐cancer immune responses and inhibited the activity of topoisomerase I which are considered an important target for cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, L. edodes‐β‐glucan has the potential to act as a suggestive agent for antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal activity and aflatoxin detoxification.Significance and Impact of the Study: The isolated β‐glucan was demonstrated as a potential molecule that could be used as an anti‐oxidant, anti‐lipid peroxidation, anti‐diabetic, anti‐fungal, aflatoxin‐detoxifying and anti‐tumour agent for biomedical applications. }

Zrig, A., A. M. Saleh, M. S. Sheteiwy, F. Hamouda, S. Selim, M. Abdel-Mawgoud, M. S. Almuhayawi, M. K. Okla, Z. K. Abbas, W. H. Al-Qahtani, et al., "Melatonin priming as a promising approach to improve biomass accumulation and the nutritional values of Chenopodium quinoa sprouts: A genotype-based study", Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 301, pp. 111088, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Increasing the production of horticultural crops is one of the most important challenges worldwide. Seed priming is a promising agricultural procedure for supporting growth and quality of economic crops. Among the most efficient seed priming agents that play a significant role in improving plant growth, chemical composition and bioactivity is melatonin (MT). This study was carried out to investigate the impact of MT priming on sprouting of three genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and their nutritive value. Different primary and secondary metabolites of the three genotypes (regalona, kvl-sra2, Q37) were quantified. MT priming promoted the growth of quinoa genotypes by increasing their biomass accumulation and total nutrient content. Regarding the effect of MT priming on pigments, there was an obvious upward trend in leaf pigments of regalona. Besides, our results showed that MT priming increased the vitamins content such as thiamin and tocopherol content. Essential amino acids, organic acids and unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in MT-primed plants relative to the corresponding controls. Further, MT priming enhanced the accumulation of total soluble sugar, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which contribute to higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Interestingly, species-specific responses toward MT priming were noticeable, where kvl-sra2 sprouts showed the highest antioxidant and antidiabetic activities among the three-quinoa genotypes. Overall, the current results suggest that MT priming could be used as a powerful agricultural approach to improve the growth and functional food value of quinoa sprouts.

AbdElgawad, H., A. M. El-Sawah, A. E. Mohammed, M. O. Alotaibi, R. S. Yehia, S. Selim, A. M. Saleh, G. T. S. Beemster, and M. S. Sheteiwy, "Increasing atmospheric CO2 differentially supports arsenite stress mitigating impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat and soybean plants", Chemosphere, vol. 296, pp. 134044, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial for the plant growth under heavy metal stress. Such beneficial effect is improved by elevated CO2 (eCO2). However, the mechanisms by which eCO2 improves AMF symbiotic associations under arsenite (AsIII) toxicity are hardly studied. Herein, we compared these regulatory mechanisms in species from two agronomical important plant families – grasses (wheat) and legumes (soybean). AsIII decreased plant growth (i.e., 53.75 and 60.29% of wheat and soybean, respectively) and photosynthesis. It also increased photorespiration and oxidative injury in both species, but soybean was more sensitive to oxidative stress as indicated by higher H2O2 accumulation and oxidation of protein and lipid. eCO2 significantly improved AMF colonization by increasing auxin levels, which induced high carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCDs) activity, particularly in soybean roots. The improved sugar metabolism in plant shoots by co-application of eCO2 and AsIII allocated more sugars to roots sequentially. Sugar accumulation in plant roots is further induced by AMF, resulting in more C skeletons to produce organic acids, which are effectively exudated into the soil to reduce AsIII uptake. Exposure to eCO2 reduced oxidative damage and this mitigation was stronger in soybean. This could be attributed to a greater reduction in photorespiration as well as a stronger antioxidant and detoxification defence systems. The grass/legume-specificity was supported by principal component analysis, which revealed that soybean was more affected by AsIII stress and more responsive to AMF and eCO2. This study provided a mechanistic understanding of the impact of AMF, eCO2 and their interaction on As-stressed grass and legume plants, allowing better practical strategies to mitigate AsIII phytotoxicity.

Yehia, R. S., A. M. Saleh, M. Bani Ismail, S. Al-Quraishy, O. Al-Amri, and R. Abdel-Gaber, "Isolation and characterization of anti-proliferative and anti-oxidative mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae", Journal of King Saud University - Science, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 101774, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Mannan oligosaccharide is one of the major components of the yeast cell wall. In the present study, the production, characterization, and bioactivity of yeast mannan were investigated. Four indigenous yeast isolates were obtained from various kinds of juice collected from local markets in Al-Ahsa, KSA, and analyzed using morphological and biochemical methods. Isolate RY1 showed the highest production of mannan. RY1 was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene (GenBank accession number LC479088.1). Mannan-RY1 was characterized by polymer analytical methods, 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Interestingly, the mannan extracted from RY1 showed a significant ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. In addition, mannan was found to have pronounced anti-tumor activity against liver (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. The results presented in this study confirm the bio-therapeutic activity of S. cerevisiae mannan, which could be used as a potential drug for cancer treatment.

Albohiri, H. H., N. A. Al-Zanbagi, M. S. Alzahrani, S. H. Albohairi, M. N. Alsulami, R. Abdel-Gaber, S. Al-Quraishy, and R. S. Yehia, "Evaluation of antiplasmodial potential of Beta vulgaris juice in Plasmodium berghei infected mice", Journal of King Saud University - Science, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 101844, 2022. AbstractWebsite

The parasite, Plasmodium sp. is responsible for Malaria, which kills around half a million people annually and its management relies on efforts of cooperation between health care personnel and the public sector. The effect of Beta vulgaris fresh juice on mice infected by the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei through in vivo trials was studied in King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The EDs were estimated for the fresh juice activity and the secondary screening. There were significant differences in the parasitemia level (p = 0.0) between the negative control group and mice treated by B. vulgaris fresh juice and Chloroquine. The mean parasitemia level in infected untreated mice or B. vulgaris fresh juice was significantly differentiated at concentrations ranging from 10% − 80% (p = 0.0). ED50 and ED90 B. vulgaris fresh juice are estimated to be 24.5 (17.8–33.8) and 40.7 (24–68.8) at 5% confidence limits. This is optimistic and stimulates additional investigation on B. vulgaris fresh juice in vitro trials and further extraction of the active components of B. vulgaris against malaria.

Yehia, R. S., E. A. Shaalan, and H. M. Al-Sheikh, "Efficacy of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, Isolated from Eastern Saudi Arabia against the House Fly, Musca domestica", Pakistan Journal of Zoology, vol. 54, pp. 1405-1411, 2021.
Elamin, M., E. Al-Olayan, R. Abdel-Gaber, and R. S. Yehia, Anti-proliferative and apoptosis induction activities of curcumin on Leishmania major, , vol. 53, issue 3, pp. 240 - 247, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease triggered by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine female sand flies. This parasite causes a wide range of human diseases, from localized self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects of curcumin on Leishmania major promastigotes (MHOM/SA/84/JISH) and to assess these effects on the cell cycle of promastigotes. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and proliferation of promastigotes. Additionally, flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining technique followed by flow cytometry was used to study the cell death induced by curcumin. In this study curcumin showed a potent antileishmanial effect, exhibiting cytotoxicity against L. major promastigotes. At 80μM, the survival in curcumin treated promastigotes reached 22%; however, the median lethal concentration of curcumin (LC50) was 35μM. The drug exerted its cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis. Curcumin-induced cell death in promastigotes reached 82.5% at 80μM concentration. In addition, curcumin delayed the cell cycle in the S-phase inhibiting cell proliferation. Thus, curcumin was shown to be effective against L. major promastigotes. Therefore, curcumin merits further research studies to demonstrate its efficacy in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis.Resumen
La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad vectorial significativa, obligadamente desencadenada por un protozoo intramacrófago del género Leishmania, que se transmite por la picadura de mosquitos flebótomos hembra. Esta especie parasitaria causa una gran variedad de enfermedades humanas: desde lesiones cutáneas localizadas autocurables hasta infecciones viscerales mortales. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos citotóxicos, antiproliferativos y apoptóticos de la curcumina en los promastigotes de Leishmania major (MHOM/SA/84/JISH) y evaluar su efecto en el ciclo celular de este parásito. Se utilizó el ensayo colorimétrico MTT para evaluar la citotoxicidad y la proliferación de los promastigotes. Además, se utilizó la citometría de flujo para analizar su ciclo celular. Se empleó la técnica de tinción de ioduro de propidio/anexina V y, posteriormente, citometría de flujo para estudiar la muerte celular inducida por la curcumina. En este estudio, la curcumina reflejó un potente efecto leishmanicida. También exhibió citotoxicidad frente a los promastigotes de L. major. A una concentración de 80μM, la supervivencia de los promastigotes tratados con curcumina fue del 22%; en tanto que la concentración letal media (LC50) fue de 35μM. El fármaco produjo su acción parasiticida mediante la inducción de apoptosis. La muerte celular inducida por curcumina en los promastigotes fue del 82,5% a una concentración de 80μM. Además, la curcumina demoró el ciclo celular en la fase S e inhibió así la proliferación celular. La curcumina demostró efectividad frente a los promastigotes de L. major y, por tanto, consideramos que los estudios deberían continuar a fin de demostrar su efectividad para tratar la leishmaniasis cutánea.

Moharib, S. A., T. M. Abdel-Rahman, T. A. - M. Moussa, and R. S. Yehia, "EFFECT OF MEDIA COMPOSITION ON LACCASE PRODUCTION BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS IN BATCH CULTURE", Yeast, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 10, 2011. Abstract