Vitamin D ameliorates diethylnitrosamine-induced liver preneoplasia: A pivotal role of CYP3A4/CYP2E1 via DPP-4 enzyme inhibition.

Citation:
Eitah, H. E., H. N. Attia, A. A. F. Soliman, A. A. Gamal El Din, K. Mahmoud, R. H. Sayed, Y. A. Maklad, and A. E. El-Sahar, "Vitamin D ameliorates diethylnitrosamine-induced liver preneoplasia: A pivotal role of CYP3A4/CYP2E1 via DPP-4 enzyme inhibition.", Toxicology and applied pharmacology, vol. 458, pp. 116324, 2023.

Abstract:

Growing evidence has indicated that vitamin D (Vit D) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in cancer cells. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible beneficial effects of Vit D on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver preneoplasia. The effect of Vit D on HepG2 cells was investigated using MTT assay. Additionally, liver preneoplasia was induced in Swiss male albino mice by giving overnight fasted animals 5 consecutive doses of DEN (75 mg/kg/week). Oral treatment with Vit D (200 IU/kg/day) was initiated either 2 weeks before DEN (first protocol) or 1 week after the first dose of DEN injection (second protocol). At the end of the experiment, tissue levels of GGT, DPP-4, TNF-α, IL-6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were also estimated. Moreover, the histopathological study of liver tissue and immunohistochemical detection of GST-P, PCNA, and NF-κB were performed. Vit D exerted a significant cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cells via significantly increasing BAX, p53, and BAX/Bcl2 ratio, and significantly decreasing Bcl2 mRNA expression. In both in vivo protocols, Vit D was capable of normalizing relative liver weight, PCNA, altered hepatocellular foci, and ductular proliferation. Moreover, Vit D significantly reduced the DEN-induced elevation of AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, DDP-4, TNF-α, IL-6, CYP2E1, liver DNA damage, GST-P, NF-κB, nuclear hyperchromasia/pleomorphism, cholestasis, and inflammatory cell aggregates, but significantly increased CYP3A4 content. In conculsion, current results reflect the potential impact of Vit D in the management of early stages of liver cancer.