Niacin mitigates blood-brain barrier tight junctional proteins dysregulation and cerebral inflammation in ketamine rat model of psychosis: Role of GPR109A receptor.

Citation:
Ibrahim, W. W., R. H. Sayed, E. S. R. A. A. A. KANDIL, and W. Wadie, "Niacin mitigates blood-brain barrier tight junctional proteins dysregulation and cerebral inflammation in ketamine rat model of psychosis: Role of GPR109A receptor.", Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, vol. 119, pp. 110583, 2022.

Abstract:

Dysregulated inflammatory responses and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction are recognized as central factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of niacin on BBB integrity in ketamine-induced model of psychosis. Meanwhile, mepenzolate bromide (MPN), a GPR109A receptor blocker, was used to investigate the role of this receptor on the observed niacin's effect. Male Wistar rats received ketamine (30 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 5 consecutive days and then niacin (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), with or without MPN (5 mg/kg/day, i.p), was given for the subsequent 15 days. Three days before the end of experiment, rats were behaviorally tested using open field, novel object recognition, social interaction, and forced swimming tests. Niacin significantly ameliorated ketamine-induced behavioral deficits, amended gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate concentration, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metallopeptidase 9 levels, and increased netrin-1 contents in the hippocampus of rats. Niacin also augmented the hippocampal expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 proteins, indicating the ability of niacin to restore the BBB integrity. Moreover, the histopathologic changes in hippocampal neurons were alleviated. Since all the beneficial effects of niacin in the present investigation were partially abolished by the co-administration of MPN; GPR109A receptor was proven to partially mediate the observed antipsychotic effects of niacin. These data revealed that GPR109A-mediated signaling pathways might represent potential targets for therapeutic interventions to prevent or slow the progression of psychosis.

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