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Alaa, I., and A. Wassal, "VO-Sim: A Generic Framework for Tuning and Evaluating Visual Odometry Systems", IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Monterey, California, USA, April 23-26, 2018.
NA, O., El-Abd N, and N. M., "VKORC1 gene (vitamin K epoxide reductase) polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis", Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation, vol. 27, issue 5, pp. 908-91, 2016. 1._final_pub_vkorc.pdf
Teixeira, S., M. Faheem, A. Chaveiro, I. Carvalhais, and F. Moreira da Silva, "Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes: effect of using different cryoprotectants and culture conditions", REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, vol. 46: WILEY-BLACKWELL COMMERCE PLACE, 350 MAIN ST, MALDEN 02148, MA USA, pp. 154-154, 2011. Abstract
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Teixeira, S., M. Faheem, A. Chaveiro, I. Carvalhais, and F. Moreira da Silva, "Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes: effect of using different cryoprotectants and culture conditions", REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, vol. 46: WILEY-BLACKWELL COMMERCE PLACE, 350 MAIN ST, MALDEN 02148, MA USA, pp. 154-154, 2011. Abstract
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Teixeira, S., M. Faheem, A. Chaveiro, I. Carvalhais, and F. Moreira da Silva, "Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes: effect of using different cryoprotectants and culture conditions", REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, vol. 46: WILEY-BLACKWELL COMMERCE PLACE, 350 MAIN ST, MALDEN 02148, MA USA, pp. 154-154, 2011. Abstract
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Teixeira, S., M. Faheem, A. Chaveiro, I. Carvalhais, and F. Moreira da Silva, "Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes: effect of using different cryoprotectants and culture conditions", REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, vol. 46: WILEY-BLACKWELL COMMERCE PLACE, 350 MAIN ST, MALDEN 02148, MA USA, pp. 154-154, 2011. Abstract
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El-Sayed, A., G. Ashour, M. Khalifa, and A. Gad, "Vitrification assessment of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes: morphological and molecular aspects", Egyptian J. Anim. Prod, vol. 52, pp. 1-7, 2015. Abstract
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Shouman, A., M. Leila, M. Mahran, M. Mohsen, T. Hafez, and M. K. Singer, "Vitreous Levels of CD4, CD8 and CD28 T-Lymphocytes in Patientswith Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy", World Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 364-372, 2014. world_journal_of_medical_science.pdf
Abdelkawi, S. A., A. M. Abdel-Salam, D. F. Ghoniem, and S. K. Ghaly, "Vitreous Humor Rheology After Nd:YAG Laser Photo Disruption", Cell Biochem Biophys, pp. 267-274, 2014. Abstractvitreous_humor_rheology_after_ndyag_laser_photo_disruption.pdf

Abstract This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vit- reous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ 9 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vit- reous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ 9 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

Keywords Consistency · Flow index · Refractive index ·

Total protein · Viscosity · Vitamin C

Abu Eleinen, K. G., A. A. Mohalhal, D. A. Ghalwash, A. A. Abdel-Kader, A. A. Ghalwash, I. A. Mohalhal, and A. M. Abdullatif, "Vitrectomy with scleral buckling versus with inferior retinectomy in treating primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with PVR and inferior breaks.", Eye (London, England), vol. 32, issue 12, pp. 1839-1844, 2018. Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate anatomic and functional outcomes of patients treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with scleral buckling versus PPV with inferior retinectomy for treatment of cases of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and inferior retinal breaks.

METHODS: Retrospective, comparative, interventional, single-center study. Fifty-one eyes of fifty-one patients with primary RRD associated with inferior breaks and PVR grade C1 or more were reviewed over 3 years. Twenty-one eyes underwent PPV with encircling band 360° and thirty eyes underwent PPV with primary inferior retinectomy. The primary outcome was final anatomic success. Secondary outcomes included change in visual acuity, primary anatomical success, the mean number of operations, and incidence of postoperative complications.

RESULTS: Primary anatomical success of 85.7% was achieved in buckle group compared to 83.3% in retinectomy group (p = 0.82). Mean duration of follow-up and mean number of operations was 9.8 ± 2.26 and 9.97 ± 2.44 months; 1.24 ± 0.62 and 1.3 ± 0.75 in buckle group and retinectomy group, respectively, achieving final anatomical success of 95.2% for the buckle group and 90% for the retinectomy group with no statistical significant difference (p = 0.49). Although visual acuity (logMAR) was better in the buckle group in the 1st month, it became nearly equal thereafter during the follow-up period (p = 0.5).

CONCLUSION: Similar anatomical and functional outcomes were achieved by combining PPV with scleral buckle or inferior retinectomy for treatment of primary RRD with PVR and inferior breaks.

Awadein, A., E. A. Abdelnaby, O. M. Elzawahry, and A. M. Abdelrahman, VITRECTOMY GUIDED BY STAINING OF THE INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE WITH INDOCYANINE GREEN, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2003. AbstractVITRECTOMY GUIDED BY STAINING OF THE INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE WITH INDOCYANINE GREEN.pdf

Title: Vitrectomy guided by staining of the internal limiting membrane with indocyanine green Aim: To study the value of staining of ILM with ICG in macular hole surgery and to study the possible complications related to both peeling of ILM and to ICG Subject and Methods: The study was performed on 10 patients with idiopathic macular hole (group A) and 10 patients with traumatic macular hole (group B). All patients were subjected to pars plana vitrectomy followed by ICG-assisted peeling of the ILM. Anatomical success was assessed based on clinical examination and OCT. Visual improvement was measured in both groups. Possible complications related to ICG were studied by fluorescein angiography, visual field analysis and ERG. The removed ILM was examined by transmission electron microscopy Results: Closure of the macular hole was achieved in 80% of patients of group A and in 90% of patients of group B. Statistically significant improvement in visual acuity was obtained in patients of group A. Visual improvement in group B was nil. Fluorescein angiography showed perimacular hyperfluorescence in only 2 patients. Visual field showed improvement in macular sensitivity which correlated with both the anatomical success rate and the visual improvement. ERG showed improvement in 30-Hz flicker amplitude. The removed ILM showed proliferation of glial cells on the inner surface with no histopathological evidence of other retinal elements. Conclusion: ICG-assisted peeling of the ILM has given encouraging results in macular hole surgery, particularly in idiopathic macular hole.

, "Vitrectomy for severe penetrating trauma involving the posterior segment.", Oftalmologia, vol. 48, issue 1, pp. 90-2, 2004.
Elnahry, A. G., E. M. Sallam, K. J. Guirguis, J. H. Talbet, and A. A. Abdel-Kader, "Vitrectomy for a secondary epiretinal membrane following treatment of adult-onset Coats' disease.", American journal of ophthalmology case reports, vol. 15, pp. 100508, 2019. Abstract

Purpose: To report a case of adult-onset Coats' disease that had worsening of macular edema and progressive macular traction following cryotherapy and repeated intravitreal bevacizumab injections due to formation of a secondary epiretinal membrane which only improved following pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling.

Observations: A 35-year-old male presented with diminution of vision in his left eye and was found to have localized telangiectatic retinal vessels and aneurysmal dilatations with massive exudation and cystoid macular edema. He was diagnosed as adult-onset Coats' disease and treated with cryotherapy and a concomitant intravitreal injection of 2.5 mg bevacizumab followed by 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 2.5 mg bevacizumab and a single injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Partial obliteration of the telangiectatic vessels and aneurysmal dilatations with improvement in surrounding lipid and fluid exudate was achieved, however, this was associated with progressive worsening of macular edema and macular traction due to formation of an epiretinal membrane which only improved following vitrectomy and membrane peeling. Effect of therapy at each stage was evaluated using visual acuity testing, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography.

Conclusion and Importance: A secondary epiretinal membrane can develop following treatment of adult-onset Coats' disease and cause traction especially when combining cryotherapy with bevacizumab injections. Vitrectomy in such cases with membrane peeling may result in improvement of anatomical and functional outcomes.

, "Vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachment in children.", Bull Ophthalmol Soc Egypt, vol. 87, pp. 41-45, 1995.
Mohammad TF, Al-Jamal M, Hamzavi IH, C. L. H. W. P. A. G. R. Harris JE, Leone G, and E. SM, "The Vitiligo Working Group recommendations for narrowband ultraviolet B light phototherapy treatment of vitiligo.", J Am Acad Dermatol, vol. 67, issue 5, pp. 879-888, 2017.
El-Darouti, M. A., S. A. Marzouk, O. Azzam, M. M. Fawzi, M. R. E. Abdel-Halim, A. A. Zayed, and T. M. Leheta, "Vitiligo vs. hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (histopathological and immunohistochemical study, univariate analysis)", European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2006. Abstract
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El-Darouti, M. A., S. A. Marzouk, O. Azzam, M. M. Fawzi, M. R. E. Abdel-Halim, A. A. Zayed, and T. M. Leheta, "Vitiligo vs. hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (histopathological and immunohistochemical study, univariate analysis)", European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2006. Abstract
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El-Darouti, M. A., S. A. Marzouk, O. Azzam, M. M. Fawzi, M. R. E. Abdel-Halim, A. A. Zayed, and T. M. Leheta, "Vitiligo vs. hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (histopathological and immunohistochemical study, univariate analysis)", European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2006. Abstract
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El-Darouti, M. A., S. A. Marzouk, O. Azzam, M. M. Fawzi, M. R. E. Abdel-Halim, A. A. Zayed, and T. M. Leheta, "Vitiligo vs. hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (histopathological and immunohistochemical study, univariate analysis)", European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 17-22, 2006. Abstract
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Fawzy, M. M., Z. M. El Maadawi, R. A. HEGAZY, and N. A. S. El Fatah, "Vitiligo - The story from within: A transmission electron microscopic study before and after narrow-band ultraviolet B.", Ultrastructural pathology, vol. 40, issue 5, pp. 265-75, 2016 Sep-Oct. Abstract

Melanocyte loss is the main feature of vitiligo, but evidence refers to pathological multiplayers. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to further explore vitiligo before and after narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy. Skin biopsies were retrieved from lesional and perilesional skin and compared to normal control skin. Sections were examined for melanocytes and keratinocytes and the number of melanosomes and thickness of basal lamina were measured. In lesional skin, keratinocytes revealed two types of degeneration with a significant increase in the mean thickness of basal lamina and decrease in the number of melanosomes. After treatment, lesional and perilesional skin showed variable ultrastructural features.

Fawzy, M. M., Z. M. El Maadawi, R. A. HEGAZY, and N. A. S. El Fatah, "Vitiligo - The story from within: A transmission electron microscopic study before and after narrow-band ultraviolet B.", Ultrastructural pathology, vol. 40, issue 5, pp. 265-75, 2016. Abstract

Melanocyte loss is the main feature of vitiligo, but evidence refers to pathological multiplayers. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to further explore vitiligo before and after narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy. Skin biopsies were retrieved from lesional and perilesional skin and compared to normal control skin. Sections were examined for melanocytes and keratinocytes and the number of melanosomes and thickness of basal lamina were measured. In lesional skin, keratinocytes revealed two types of degeneration with a significant increase in the mean thickness of basal lamina and decrease in the number of melanosomes. After treatment, lesional and perilesional skin showed variable ultrastructural features.

MM, F., E. M. ZM, H. RA, and E. F. NS, "Vitiligo - The story from within: A transmission electron microscopic study before and after narrow-band ultraviolet B", Ultrastruct Pathol., vol. 40, issue 5, pp. 265-75, 2016.
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