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Sroor, A. T., S. M. Darwish, S. M. El-Bahi, and M. A. E. G. Karim, ""Radiological Hazards for Marble and Granite used at Shak El Thouban Indusrial Zone in Egypt"", Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 4, issue 12A, pp. 50-57, 2013.
Emad-Eldin, S., and A. Selim, Radiology and Occuloplasty, , cham, Springer, 2020.
Emad-Eldin, S., and A. Selim, "Radiology and Oculoplasty ", Oculoplastic Surgery: A Practical Guide to Common Disorders , Cham, Springer Nature, 2020.
Saleem, S. N., Y. Y. Sabri, and A. S. Saeed, "Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Springer Verlag, pp. 283, 2009. Abstract
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Saleem, S. N., Y. Y. Sabri, and A. S. Saeed, "Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University", Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Springer, pp. 283, 2008. Abstract
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Elsayed, I. A. E. A., and F. A. Abd, "Radiometric Study Of Tempromandibular Joint Disorder and Malocclusion", Egyptian Dental Journal, vol. 48, no. January: Egyptian Dental Association, pp. 145–152, 2002. Abstract
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H, M., E. - S. MI, M. SM, I. ME, S. AF, and E. - S. Kh, "Radionuclide study in the assessment of experimental fracture of the mandible", European Nuclear Medicine , Brussels, 26-30 August , 1995.
G, Z., E. - H. Sh, F. M, M. H, E. - S. T, and M. MM, "Radionuclide study of the blood ocular barrier", European Drug Metab and Pharma, vol. 10, pp. 325-328, 1985.
Hussein, M. H. E., A. K. Hegazy, and H. F. Kabiel, Radionuclides uptake by some crops raised in coastal black sand soil, , Deutschland/Germany, LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2016. radionuclides_uptake_by_crops.pdf
Abou-Zeid, S. M., B. E. EL- Bialy, N. B. EL-borai, H. O. AbuBakr, and A. M. A. Elhadary, "Radioprotective effect of Date syrup on radiation- induced damage in Rats.", Scientific Reports , vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 7423, 2018.
Ahmed, K. A., and A. E. A. Maguid, "Radioprotective effect of garlic oil and melatonin on radiation- induced histopathological changes in rat thyroid gland and testes", J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. , vol. July,, pp. 15- 27., 2004.
Shallan, A. M., H. F. M. Ali, M. A.M., and M. M. A. Ghoneim, "Radioprotective effects of high protein diet, vitamins C and E on liver activity , kidney function and serum apotosis of irradiated rats.", J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., vol. 32, issue 6, pp. 5101-5115, 2007. Abstract
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Shallan, M. A., H. F. M. Ali, M. A. Ahmed, and M. M. A. Ghoneim, "Radioprotective effects of high protein diet, vitamins C and E on liver activity, kidney function and serum apoptosis rates of irradiated rats.", J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., vol. 32, issue 6, no. 6, pp. 5101–5115, 2007. Abstract

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Awad, H. H., E. M. S. EL-KHOLY, A. M. FADEL, and A. M. FADL, "THE RADIOPROTECTIVE ROLE OF SELENIUM IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATED MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.", ISOTOPE & RAD. RES.,, vol. 48 , issue 1, pp. 1 - 14, 2016. aya_2017.pdf
Awad, H. H., E. M. S. EL-KHOLY, A. M. FADEL, and A. M. FADL, "THE RADIOPROTECTIVE ROLE OF SELENIUM IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATED MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.", ISOTOPE & RAD. RES.,, vol. 48, issue 1, pp. 1-14, 2016. aya_2017.pdf
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Almalki, F. A., M. A. Motaleb, I. T. Ibrahim, R. S. A. Rizq, and E. S. Elzanfaly, "Radiosynthesis, chromatographic evaluation and biodistribution of [125I]iododobutamine as a radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging", Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 324, no. 2, pp. 459-466, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Koeck, J., Y. Abo-Madyan, F. Lohr, F. Stieler, an Kriz, R. - P. Mueller, F. Wenz, and H. T. Eich, "Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): the Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy", Int. J. of Radiation Oncology, 2011. Abstract

Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR).

Koeck, J., Y. Abo-Madyan, F. Lohr, F. Stieler, J. Kriz, R. - P. Mueller, F. Wenz, and H. T. Eich, "Radiotherapy for early mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma according to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): the roles of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and involved-node radiotherapy", International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics, vol. 83, no. 1: Elsevier, pp. 268–276, 2012. AbstractWebsite

Purpose

Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR).

Methods and Materials

Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose–volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR.

Results

Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm3 and 1015 cm3, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique.

Conclusions

Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.

Keywords

Hodgkin lymphoma;
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy;
Involved-node;
Involved-field;
Mediastinum

J.K. and Y.A. contributed equally to this article.

Hassan Metwally, M. A., R. Ali, M. Kuddu, T. Shouman, P. Strojan, J. Overgaard, and C. Grau, "Radiotherapy quality assurance of the IAEA-HypoX trial of the accelerated radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with or without the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole.", Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), vol. 54, issue 9, pp. 1673-7, 2015.
Hassan Metwally, M. A., R. Ali, M. Kuddu, T. Shouman, P. Strojan, J. Overgaard, and C. Grau, "Radiotherapy quality assurance of the IAEA-HypoX trial of the accelerated radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with or without the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole.", Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), vol. 54, issue 9, pp. 1673-7, 2015.
Zein, S. N., and M. S. Shafie, "Radish Mosaic Comovirus (RaMV) isolated from Eruca sativa L.", Egyptian J. Virol, vol. 2, pp. 61-76, 2005. Abstract
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radwa el shorbagy, khaled ayad, alaa el din balbaa, and waleed reda, "radwa el shorbagy", APTA, charlotte, 11-6-2014. abstract.docx
Elmarsafy, A., S. Meshaal, R. El-hawary, M. El-Sharkawy, R. Khaled, R. Jan, R.Alkady, d. abdelaziz, N.Galal, and J. Boutros, "RAG1 and RAG2 Mutations in Egyptian SCID Patients", ESID 2014, 10/2014.
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