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Farrag, A., W. ElAroussy, G. Sayed, A. E. Eraky, A. Mahrous, A. Adel, Y. Yazed, A. M. Ibrahim, and M. Ibrahim, "Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Egyptian University Students: Magnitude of the Problem", Epidemiology (open Access), vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 1000181, 2015.
Farrag, A., A. E. Eraky, W. ElAroussy, G. Sayed, A. Mahrous, and A. Adel, "Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Egyptian University Students: Magnitude of the Problem", Epidemiology , vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 1-5, 2015.
Azza Farrag, Azza El Eraky, W. E. A. G. S. A. M. A. A. A. M. I., and M. Ibrahim, "Obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in Egyptian university students: magnitude of the problem", Epidemiology: Open Access, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 181, 2015. Abstract
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Osailan, A. M., B. Alqahtani, and R. Elnaggar, "Obesity and parasympathetic reactivation of the heart following exercise testing in young male adults: a pilot study.", Annals of Saudi medicine, vol. 40, issue 2, pp. 113-119, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In elderly people, obesity may induce changes in the autonomic nervous system via alteration of the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Little is known about obesity and parasympathetic reactivation following exercise testing, particularly in young people in Saudi Arabia, and its relationship with body composition parameters.

OBJECTIVES: Compare parasympathetic reactivation using heart rate recovery (HRR) following the exercise test between young obese and nonobese people and explore the association between body composition parameters with HRR.

DESIGNS: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: University research lab.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven young male college students underwent anthropometric measurements and treadmill exercise testing, during which the heart rate was monitored via 12-lead electro-cardiography. Participants were divided into a group (n=15) with high body fat percentage (>30%), and a group (n=12) with a normal body fat percentage (<30%) to compare multiple parameters including HRR, which was defined as the absolute change from heart rate (HR) peak during exercise to 1-minute post-HR peak.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRR, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat percentage, and trunk fat. SAMPLE SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS: n=27, mean (SD) age=22.4 (0.98) years, range 21-25 years.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in HRR between the groups (32.20 [13.42] bpm for high body fat percentage vs 35.42 [13.35] bpm for normal body fat percentage) ( P=.54). We found a non-significant inverse correlations of HRR with BMI (r=-0.18, P=.37), WHR (r=-0.04, P=.86), fat percentage (r=-0.18, P=.38) and trunk fat (r=-0.23, P=.25).

CONCLUSION: HRR was preserved in our young obese people and was not different from nonobese people. Furthermore, it seems that obese people with higher body composition parameters may have slower HRR, or slower recovery indicating poorer parasympathetic reactivation.

LIMITATIONS: Need a larger sample to confirm the findings of this pilot study.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.

Latif, M. S. A., M. S. A. Latif, yasmine Elsawey, and U. A. Mabed, "Obesity and Waist Circumference are Possible Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: Correlation with Different Ultrasonography Criteria", Cancer management and research, vol. 12, issue 11791322, pp. 6077- 6089, 2020.
El-Baraky, I. A., M. M. Abbassi, T. A. Marei, and N. A. Sabry, "Obesity Does Not Affect Propofol Pharmacokinetics During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass", Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, vol. 30, no. 4: WB Saunders, pp. 876–883, 2016. Abstract
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El-Baraky, I. A., M. M. Abbassi, T. A. Marei, and N. A. Sabry, "Obesity does not affect propofol pharmacokinetics during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass", Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, vol. 30: Elsevier, pp. 876-883, 2016. Abstract

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El-Baraky, I. A., M. M. Abbassi, T. A. Marei, and N. A. Sabry, "Obesity Does Not Affect Propofol Pharmacokinetics During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass", Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 30, issue 4, pp. 876 - 883, 2016. AbstractWebsite

Objective Because of the lack of data regarding the impact of obesity on propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery using hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the authors sought to explore propofol pharmacokinetics and develop a predictive pharmacokinetic model that characterizes and predicts propofol pharmacokinetics in this population. Design A prospective, observational study. Setting A teaching hospital. Participants The study comprised 17 obese and 17 control (nonobese) patients undergoing hypothermic CPB. Intervention None. Measurements and Main Results Patients mainly underwent valve surgery. On initiation of hypothermic CPB (28°C-32°C), patients received a propofol (1%) bolus (1 mg/kg) immediately followed by a 2 mg/kg/h infusion. Blood samples were withdrawn at the following times: before dosing; 1, 3, 5, and 7 minutes after the propofol bolus dose; every 20 minutes during infusion; just before discontinuation of the infusion; and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes after discontinuation of the infusion. The plasma propofol concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and then data were imported into Monolix (Lixoft, Antony, France) for population pharmacokinetic modeling and pharmacokinetic parameters estimation. A 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model with age as a covariate on the peripheral volume of distribution (V2) best described the pooled data. The pooled data was internally evaluated successfully to describe and predict propofol pharmacokinetics in the addressed population. Propofol clearance, intercompartmental clearance, and central volume of distribution were 805 mL/min, 1140 mL/min and 18.8 L, respectively. V2 was calculated as 9.86×exp.(1.88×[age/40]) L. Conclusion Propofol pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in obese and nonobese patients undergoing hypothermic CPB. Age was the major determinant of propofol V2 in the obese population. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

IA, E. - B., A. MM, M. TA, and S. NA, "Obesity Does Not Affect Propofol Pharmacokinetics During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass.", Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia , vol. 30, issue 4, pp. 876-883, 2016.
Sinzabakira, F., and S. A. Alsirafy, "The Obesity Epidemic and Cancer in Africa.", Research in Oncology, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 2-5, 2018. Abstract2018_sinzabakira_res_oncol_obesity_cancer_africa.pdf

Overweight and obesity have increased since the 1980s. It reached 37% for men and 38% for women in 2013. The situation worsened for children and adolescents in developed countries. Recent reports showed that African and other developing nations are not immune from the devastating obesity epidemic.
Many studies revealed a relevant strong relationship between obesity and cancers such as esophageal, postmenopausal breast, colorectal and endometrial cancers. Obesity-related cancers have increased exceptionally in adolescents and young adults but decreased in more advanced ages.
Currently, cancer care services in Africa are still limited despite the rising demand; therefore, access to them is relatively
difficult for many cancer patients with low income. Considering the fact that some cancers may be preventable, we reviewed articles about obesity and cancer to highlight the magnitude of the problem and raise awareness among African leadership on the importance of cancer prevention measures targeting obesity.

Shafik A, Shafik AA, E. - S. S. O. I., "Obesity in men: Endocrinology, Spermatogenesis, Infertility and Heredity", Arch Androl Androl Update , 2007.
Tawfiq, R. A., N. N. Nassar, O. A. Hammam, R. M. Allam, M. M. Elmazar, D. M. Abdallah, and Y. M. Attia, "Obeticholic acid orchestrates the crosstalk between ileal autophagy and tight junctions in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Role of TLR4/TGF-β1 axis", Chem Biol Interact , vol. 361, pp. 109953, 2022.
El-Ghandour, N. M. F., I. Lotfy, B. M. Ayoub, and M. A. R. Soliman, "Obituary for Professor Mohamed Lotfy Shehata", World Neurosurgery , vol. 156, pp. 147-148, 2021.
Munao, S., A. El-Guindy, A. Pal, and F. Pellarin, "Obituary of David Goss", JOURNAL OF NUMBER THEORY, vol. 179, no. 1: Elsevier, pp. 1–2, 2017. Abstract
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McDermid, J., Object ... {Objection} {Sustained}, : IEEE, pp. 228, 1993. Abstract

Highlights the difficulty of expressing Non Functional Requirements using OOA, indicating that insisting on it is potentially harmful

Mahmoud, A. S., S. Mohamed, R. A. El-Khoribi, and H. M. Abdelsalam, "Object Detection Using Adaptive Mask RCNN in Optical Remote Sensing Images", International Journal of Intelligent Engineering & Systems, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 65-76, 2020. Abstract
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Bassiouny, M., and M. El-Saban, "Object matching using feature aggregation over a frame sequence", 2011 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV): IEEE, pp. 95–102, 2011. Abstract
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Hemayed, E. E., and A. A. Farag, "Object modeling using space carving", Image Processing, 2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on, vol. 2: IEEE, pp. 760–763, 2000. Abstract
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Hemayed, E. E., and A. A. Farag, "Object modeling using space carving", Image Processing, 2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on, vol. 2: IEEE, pp. 760–763, 2000. Abstract
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Hemayed, E. E., and A. A. Farag, "Object modeling using space carving", Image Processing, 2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on, vol. 2: IEEE, pp. 760–763, 2000. Abstract
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Ragab, S. R., and H. H. Ammar, "Object oriented design metrics and tools a survey", Informatics and Systems (INFOS), 2010 The 7th International Conference on: IEEE, pp. 1–7, 2010. Abstract
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El-Wakeel, M., A. El-Bastawissy, M. Boshra, and A. Fahmy, "Object Oriented Design Metrics – A Taxonomy", ". 3rd International Conference on Computer Science, Information Technology, e-business, and Applications (CSITeA'04), Cairo,Egypt, December 27-29 , 2004.