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Atef, M., S. A. Youssef, A. Ramadan, and M. Issa, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability, tissue levels and acetylation of some sulphonamides in goats.", Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie, vol. 302, pp. 27–39, 1988. Abstract
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Atef, M., S. A. Youssef, A. Ramadan, and M. Issa, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability, tissue levels and acetylation of some sulphonamides in goats.", Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie, vol. 302, pp. 27-39, 1989 Nov-Dec. Abstract

Sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were once administered in goats via oral and i.v. route (100 mg/kg b.wt.) for determination of plasma and urine concentrations of the unchanged sulphonamides and their acetylated derivatives, kinetic behavior, systemic bioavailability, tissue levels and acetylation. The highest plasma concentrations of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were reached after 0.64, 1.31 and 0.46 hr following oral administration, with an absorption half-life of 0.84, 1.31 and 0.38 hr and an elimination half-life of 3.51, 5.01 and 5.55 hr, respectively. Following a single i.v. injection, the kinetic disposition of sulphamethoxazole and sulphadimethoxine followed a one-compartmental model with an elimination half-life of 1.48 and 1.76 hr and a total body clearance-time curve of sulphadimethyloxazole, after a single i.v. injection, could be described by a two-compartmental open model with an elimination half-life of 3.27 hr, a volume of distribution of 248.07 ml/kg and a total body clearance of 0.82 ml/kg/min. The systemic bioavailability was 19.95, 11.37 and 23.27% after oral administration of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine, respectively. The percentages of serum protein binding of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were determined in most of the body tissues, collected 4 hr after i.v. injection. The highest concentration was found in kidney and liver. On the other hand, sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were N4-acetylated in the body tissues to a higher extent than that in plasma. Acetylation was highest in rumen and skeletal muscle.

Atef, M., A. Ramadan, S. A. Youssef, and K. Abo El-Sooud, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of salinomycin in chickens.", Research in veterinary science, vol. 54, issue 2, pp. 179-83, 1993 Mar. Abstract

Salinomycin was administered to chickens orally and intravenously to determine blood concentration, kinetic behaviour, bioavailability and tissue residues. The drug was given by intracrop and intravenous routes in a single dose of 20 mg kg-1 body-weight. The highest serum concentrations of salinomycin were reached half an hour after oral dosage with an absorption half-life (t0.5(ab)) of 3.64 hours and elimination half-life (t0.5(beta)) of 1.96 hours. The systemic bioavailability percentage was 73.02 per cent after intracrop administration, indicating the high extent of salinomycin absorption from this route in chickens. Following intravenous injection the kinetics of salinomycin can be described by a two-compartment open model with a t1/2(alpha) of 0.48 hours, Vd ss (volume of distribution) of 3.28 litre kg-1 and Cl(beta) (total body clearance) of 27.39 ml kg-1 min-1. The serum protein-binding tendency of salinomycin as calculated in vitro was 19.78 per cent. Salinomycin concentrations in the serum and tissues of birds administered salinomycin premix (60 ppm) for two weeks were lower than those after administration of a single intracrop dose of pure salinomycin (20 mg kg-1 bodyweight). The highest concentration of salinomycin residues were present in the liver followed by the kidneys, muscles, fat, heart and skin. No salinomycin residues were detected in tissues after 48 hours except in the liver and these had disappeared completely by 72 hours.

Atef, M., A. Ramadan, S. A. Youssef, and K. Abo El-Sooud, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of salinomycin in chickens.", Research in veterinary science, vol. 54, issue 2, pp. 179-83, 1993 Mar. Abstract

Salinomycin was administered to chickens orally and intravenously to determine blood concentration, kinetic behaviour, bioavailability and tissue residues. The drug was given by intracrop and intravenous routes in a single dose of 20 mg kg-1 body-weight. The highest serum concentrations of salinomycin were reached half an hour after oral dosage with an absorption half-life (t0.5(ab)) of 3.64 hours and elimination half-life (t0.5(beta)) of 1.96 hours. The systemic bioavailability percentage was 73.02 per cent after intracrop administration, indicating the high extent of salinomycin absorption from this route in chickens. Following intravenous injection the kinetics of salinomycin can be described by a two-compartment open model with a t1/2(alpha) of 0.48 hours, Vd ss (volume of distribution) of 3.28 litre kg-1 and Cl(beta) (total body clearance) of 27.39 ml kg-1 min-1. The serum protein-binding tendency of salinomycin as calculated in vitro was 19.78 per cent. Salinomycin concentrations in the serum and tissues of birds administered salinomycin premix (60 ppm) for two weeks were lower than those after administration of a single intracrop dose of pure salinomycin (20 mg kg-1 bodyweight). The highest concentration of salinomycin residues were present in the liver followed by the kidneys, muscles, fat, heart and skin. No salinomycin residues were detected in tissues after 48 hours except in the liver and these had disappeared completely by 72 hours.

Atef, M., R. A, S. A. H. Youssef, and K. Abo El-Sooud, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of salinomycin in chickens", Research in Veterinary science, vol. 54, pp. 179-183, 1993.
Atef, M., A. Ramadan, S. A. H. Youssef, and A. K. EL-Sooud, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of salinomycin in chickens", Research in veterinary science, vol. 54, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 179–183, 1993. Abstract
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Atef, M., A. Y. I. El-Gendi, S. A. H. Youssef, and A. M. M. Amer, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of oxytetracycline in chickens", Archiv fuer Gefluegelkunde (Germany, FR), 1986. Abstract
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Afifi, N. A., and A. Ramadan, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of apramycin in broiler chickens.", Res. Vet. Sci.,, vol. 62(3), pp. 249-252, 1997.
.Afifi, N. A., and R. A., "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of apramycin in broiler chickens.", Res. Vet. Sci., , vol. 62(3):, pp. 249-252, 1997.
Afifi, N. A., and A. Ramadan, "Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of apramycin in broiler chickens.", Research in veterinary science, vol. 62, issue 3, pp. 249-52, 1997 May-Jun. Abstract

Apramycin was administered to chickens orally, intramuscularly and intravenously to determine blood concentration, kinetic behaviour, bioavailability and tissue residues. Single doses of apramycin at the rate of 75 mg kg-1 body weight were given to broiler chickens by intracrop, i.m. and i.v. routes. The highest serum concentrations of apramycin were reached 0.20 and 0.76 hours after the oral and i.m. doses with an absorption half-life (t1/2(ab.)) of 0.10 and 0.19 hours and an elimination half life (t1/2(beta)) of 1.22 and 2.31 hours respectively. The systemic bioavailability was 2.0 and 58 per cent after intracrop and i.m. administration, respectively, indicating poor absorption of the drug when given orally. Following i.v. injection, the kinetics of apramycin was described by a two-compartment open model with a (t1/2(alpha)) of 1.5 hours, (t1/2(beta)) of 2.1 hours. Vd(ss) (volume of distribution) of 4.82 litre kg-1 and C1(B) (total body clearance) of 1.88 litre kg-1 hour-1. The serum protein-binding of apramycin was 26 per cent. The highest tissue concentrations of apramycin were present in the kidneys and liver. No apramycin residues were detected in tissues after six hours except in the liver and kidneys following intracrop dosing and kidneys following i.m. administration.

Elhassan, M. M., A. M. Mahmoud, M. A. Hegazy, and S. Mowaka, "Kinetic Degradation Study of Ipragliflozin Coupled with MS/MS Structural Elucidation", Chromatographia, vol. 85, issue 3: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 233-245, 2022. Abstract
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Fekry, M. I., P. A. Tipton, and K. S. Gates, "Kinetic consequences of replacing the internucleotide phosphorus atoms in DNA with arsenic.", ACS chemical biology, vol. 6, issue 2, pp. 127-30, 2011 Feb 18. Abstract

It was claimed in a recent publication that a strain of Halomonadacea bacteria (GFAJ-1) isolated from the arsenic-rich waters of Mono Lake, California is able to substitute arsenic for phosphorus in its macromolecules and small molecule metabolites. In this short Perspective, we consider chemical and biochemical issues surrounding the central claim that Halomonadacea GFAJ-1 is able to survive while incorporating kinetically labile arsenodiester linkages into the backbone of its DNA. Chemical precedents suggest that arsenodiester linkages in the putative arsenic-containing DNA of GFAJ-1 would undergo very rapid hydrolytic cleavage in water at 25 °C with an estimated half-life of 0.06 s. In contrast, the phosphodiester linkages of native DNA undergo spontaneous hydrolysis with a half-life of approximately 30,000,000 y at 25 °C. Overcoming such dramatic kinetic instability in its genetic material would present serious challenges to Halomonadacea GFAJ-1.

Fekry, M. I., P. A. Tipton, and K. S. Gates, "Kinetic Consequences of Replacing the Internucleotide Phosphorus Atoms in DNA with Arsenic", ACS Chem. Biol., vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 127-30, 2011. CU-PDF.pdf
Mohsen, S. M., A. M. Alian, R. Attia, and T. El-Azhary, "Kinetic behavior and amino acid composition of lipase produced by Rhyzopus delemar Nrsl 1472 [Egypt]", Egyptian Journal of Food Science (Egypt), 1986. Abstract
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Abdelmoez, W., E. Ashour, S. M. Naguib, A. Hilal, D. A. AlMahdy, E. A. Mahrous, and E. Abdel-Sattar, "Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.", Journal of oleo science, vol. 65, issue 6, pp. 477-85, 2016 Jun 01. Abstract

In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%).

Abdelmoez, W., E. Ashour, S. M. Naguib, A. Hilal, D. A. AlMahdy, E. A. Mahrous, and E. Abdel-Sattar, "Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology", Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 65, no. 6: Japan Oil Chemists' Society, pp. 477–485, 2016. Abstract
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Badawy, W. A., N. H. Hilal, and S. A. El-Shazly, ""Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters of the Ferro- Ferricyanoferrate Redox System in Glycerol-Water Mixed Solvent". ", Berichte der Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. , vol. 95, pp. 781, 1991.
Mohy-Eldin, M. S., K. A. Alamry, Z. A. Khan, A. E. M. Mekky, and T. S. Saleh, "Kinetic and equilibrium studies of chromium (VI) metal ions adsorption using Amberlite IRA-420 anions exchanger", Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 62, pp. 377-386, 2017. AbstractWebsite
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Badawy, W. A., and N. H. Hilal, ""Kinetic Studies of the Ferro- Ferricyanoferrate Redox Couple "", Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr.,, vol. 128, pp. 144, 1991.
Hilal, N. H., S. A. El-Shazly, M. T. Mohammed, and W. A. Badawy, ""Kinetic and Thermodynamic Characteristics of the Iron- Hexacyanoferrate Redox System in T.Butanol/ Water Mixed Solvent ". ", Ind. J. Chem. Tech., vol. 33, pp. 401, 1994.
Refaye, G. E. E., S. O. H. E. I. R. M. EL-KOSERY, A. H. Abdelaziz, and M. F. Mohamed, "Kinesiotaping Versus Pilate Exercises on Primary Dysmenorrhea in Girls", International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, vol. 24, issue 9, pp. 8946-8962, 2020. Abstract

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