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El-Baz, F. K., D. O. Saleh, G. A. A. Jaleel, R. A. Hussein, and A. Hassan, "Heamatococcus pluvialis ameliorates bone loss in experimentally-induced osteoporosis in rats via the regulation of OPG/RANKL pathway", Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 116, pp. 1-11, 2019. osteoporosis.pdf
HH, A. E. B., and E. - B. GS, "Healthy Benefit of Microalgal Bioactive Substances", Journal of Aquatic Science, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 11-23, 2013. gamal_paper2.pdf
Mohiedden, M., A. M. Said, A. M. Ali, M. A. M. Razik, and M. A. Gad, "Healthcare Workers Infection Rate in the Era of Coronavirus Disease 2019 - in Tertiary Teaching Hospital", Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 651-658., Submitted. aug_2021_healthcare_workers_infection_rate_in_the_era_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_-_in_tertiary_teaching_hospita.pdf
Zamzam, M., H. Zaid, R. Khedr, H. Hafez, A. Moussa, R. Samaha, S. Kamal, and S. Abouelnaga, "Healthcare Sciences Academy 57357 “Learning to Teach”: a real-life model for capacity building of health care professionals in developing countries", Blood Advances, vol. 1, issue Suppl: American Society of Hematology, pp. 20-22, 2017. Abstract
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Zamzam, M., H. Zaid, R. Khedr, H. Hafez, A. Moussa, R. Samaha, S. Kamal, and S. Abouelnaga, "Healthcare Sciences Academy 57357 “Learning to Teach”: a real-life model for capacity building of health care professionals in developing countries", Blood Advances, vol. 1, issue Suppl, pp. 20-22, 2017.
Zamzam, M., H. Zaid, R. Khedr, H. Hafez, A. Moussa, R. Samaha, S. Kamal, and S. Abouelnaga, "Healthcare Sciences Academy 57357 “Learning to Teach”: a real-life model for capacity building of health care professionals in developing countries", Blood Advances, vol. 1, issue Suppl 1: The American Society of Hematology, pp. 20, 2017. Abstract
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Amin, T., and A. Al Wehedy, "Healthcare providers’ knowledge of standard precautions at the primary healthcare level in Saudi Arabia", Healthcare Infection, vol. 14, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 65–72, 2009. Abstract
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Amin, T., and A. Al Wehedy, "Healthcare providers’ knowledge of standard precautions at the primary healthcare level in Saudi Arabia", Healthcare Infection, vol. 14, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 65–72, 2009. Abstract
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Amin, T., and A. Al Wehedy, "Healthcare providers’ knowledge of standard precautions at the primary healthcare level in Saudi Arabia", Healthcare Infection, vol. 14, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 65–72, 2009. Abstract
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Amin, T., and A. Al Wehedy, "Healthcare providers’ knowledge of standard precautions at the primary healthcare level in Saudi Arabia", Healthcare Infection, vol. 14, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 65–72, 2009. Abstract
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Amin, T., and A. Al Wehedy, "Healthcare providers' knowledge of standard precautions at the primary healthcare level in Saudi Arabia", Healthcare Infection, vol. 14, no. 2: CSIRO, pp. 65–72, 2009. Abstract
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Saranummi, N., M. Demeester, A. F. P. de Talens, J. Harrington, V. Heimly, J. M. de la Riva Grandal, and J. Taylor, "Healthcare information framework", International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing, vol. 39, pp. 99–104, 1995. Abstract

CEN committee TC 251 Medical Informatics, has set up a project team charged with producing a European pre-standard ENV on Healthcare Information Framework (HIF). The HIF is based on abstraction from a specific information system architecture to a reference architecture and further to a conceptual architectural framework based on serving open, distributed and heterogeneous healthcare enterprises. To specify the suitable healthcare information system architecture modelling of the healthcare enterprise is required. As there is no one method serving all needs, the HIF gives guidance on what aspects to look at in selecting a suitable modelling method. It is expected that the work will be completed by early 1995.

, "Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.", Lancet (London, England), vol. 390, issue 10091, pp. 231-266, 2017 07 15. Abstract

BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.

METHODS: We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r=0·88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r=0·83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r=0·77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time.

FINDINGS: Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28·6 to 94·6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40·7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39·0-42·8) in 1990 to 53·7 (52·2-55·4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21·2 in 1990 to 20·1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73·8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015.

INTERPRETATION: This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-system characteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world.

FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Aboul Enien, M., N. Ibrahim, W. Makar, D. Darwish, and M. Gaber, "Health-related quality of life: Impact of surgery and treatment modality in breast cancer.", Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, vol. 14, issue 5, pp. 957-963, 2018. Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women leading to serious sequelae on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The Arabic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3) and EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 172 Egyptian women with breast cancer. One hundred and nineteen patients had modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and 53 had breast conservative surgery (BCS).

Results: The mean age was 50.32 years (±standard deviation [SD] = 8.54) with a mean period of 4.75 years (±SD 3.33) from surgery. The global health was poor (28.38 ± 11.7, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 30.71). Among the functional scales of QLQ-C30, social functioning scored the highest (87.91 ± 17.92, 95% CI: 91.64) whereas emotional functioning scored the lowest (59.61 ± 24.96, 95% CI: 64.66). The most distressing symptom on the symptom scales of QLQ-C30 was financial impact followed by fatigue and pain (mean: 57.87, 39.43, and 36.44). Using the disease-specific tools, it was found that body image and sexual functioning scored the lowest (mean 74.51 ± 13.21 and 74.45 ± 14.89, 95% CI: 77.27 and 77.55), respectively. On the symptom scale, arm symptoms scored the highest with a mean of 32.35 ± 23.22 (95% CI: 37.19). MRM patients had more favorable global health status and body image among the functional scale (P = 0.011, 0.027) due to social and religious issues. The functional scale was better in BCS with significant role function (P = 0.004). In the symptom scale, fatigue, pain, systemic side effects, and arm symptoms were statistically significant better in the BCS (P = 0.004, 0.006, 0.002, and 0.003, respectively).

Conclusion: Egyptian breast cancer survivors reported lower overall global QOL. HRQOL is better in BCS in spite of good global health and body image in MRM.

Aboumohamed, A. A., S. J. Raza, A. Al-Daghmin, C. Tallman, T. Creighton, H. Crossley, S. Dailey, A. Khan, R. Din, D. Mehedint, et al., "Health-related quality of life outcomes after robot-assisted and open radical cystectomy using a validated bladder-specific instrument: a multi-institutional study.", Urology, vol. 83, issue 6, pp. 1300-8, 2014 Jun. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) using validated bladder-specific Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Body Image scale (BIS) between open radical cystectomy (ORC) and robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC).

METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of all patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Patients were grouped based on surgical approach (open vs robot assisted) and diversion technique (extracorporeal vs intracorporeal). Patients completed BCI and BIS preoperatively and at standardized postoperative intervals (at least 2). The primary exposure variable was surgical approach. The primary outcome measure was difference in interval and baseline BCI and BIS scores in each group. The Fisher exact, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparisons.

RESULTS: Eighty-two and 100 patients underwent RARC and ORC, respectively. Compared with RARC, more patients undergoing ORC had an American Society of Anesthesiology score≥3 (66% vs 45.1% RARC; P=.007) and shorter median operative time (350 vs 380 minutes; P=.009). Baseline urinary, bowel, sexual function, and body image were not different between both the groups (P=1.0). Longitudinal postoperative analysis revealed better sexual function in ORC group (P=.047), with no significant differences between both the groups in the other 3 domains (P=.11, .58, and .93). Comparisons regarding diversion techniques showed similar findings in baseline and postoperative HRQL data, with no significant differences in the HRQL and body image domains.

CONCLUSION: RARC has comparable HRQL outcomes to ORC using validated BCI and BIS. The diversion technique used does not seem to affect patients' quality of life.

Youssef, N. F. A., M. El Kassas, A. Farag, and Ashley Shepherd, "Health-related quality of Life in patients with chronic hepatitis C receiving Sofosbuvir-based treatment, with and without Interferon: a prospective observational study in Egypt.", BMC gastroenterology, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 18, 2017. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Egyptian government introduced the first directly acting antivirals (DAAs) into Egypt through the government funded National Treatment Program. As yet, there has been no investigation into the effects of these new DAAs therapies on patient reported outcomes (PROs). This study aimed to (1) assess the PROs (health-related quality of life (HRQoL), mental health and perceived social support) of HCV patients receiving DAAs therapy prior, during and at the end of therapy; (2) evaluate PROs of Interferon-free (dual) users versus Interferon-containing (triple) users cross the three different time periods; and (3) identify the predictors of HRQoL of DAAs therapy users cross the three different time periods.

METHODS: A prospective observational design was used. Patients with chronic HCV undergoing treatment following the Egyptian National Guidelines at one of the national treatment centers were approached. Data collection occurred in the period from February to October 2015. Data was collected at three time points: (1) baseline (time 0: T0), before initiating therapy); (2) 5/6 weeks after initiation of therapy (time 1 of therapy: T1) and at the end of the therapy (Time 2: T2). Four PROs questionnaires were utilized for data collection: (1) Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), (2) The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), (3) the Liver Disease Symptom Index-2.0 (LDSI-2.0) for testing disease specific HRQoL and (4) the Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE) Index, alongside the background data sheet.

RESULTS: Sixty-two patients participated. There was a change in HRQoL, symptom experience and mental health across the three different time periods. HRQoL was impaired more after starting the course of therapy (T1) than at baseline (T0) and end of therapy (T2), z ≥ -2.04, p ≤ .04. Also, symptom experience deteriorated more during the treatment period than at the baseline, Z ≥ -1.97, p ≤ .04. Anxiety and stress were significantly higher during the treatment period than at the end of treatment. Perceived social support was significantly higher during the treatment period than at baseline and end of therapy, Z ≥ -2.27, p ≤ .023. During the course of therapy, triple users were more likely to report poorer HRQoL and anxiety than dual users (p ≤ .04). By the end of therapy, the two arms of therapy had no significant differences in any of the PROs. At baseline, the predictor model significantly (p = .000) explained 37.5% of the variation in the HRQoL prior to therapy. Depression was the main variable that contributed to (41.3%) predicting change in HRQoL prior to therapy. During therapy, the model significantly (p = .000) explained 76% of the variation in the HRQoL-T1. Stress-T1, body mass index (BMI)-T1 and HRQoL-T0 significantly and respectively predicted 44.4, 46.5 and 31.1% of the variation in HRQoL-T1. At the end of therapy, the model significantly (p = .000) predicted 80.5% of the variation in the HRQoL-T2. HRQoL-T1 and anxiety-T2 significantly predicted 72.3 and 61.6% of the variation in HRQoL-T2.

CONCLUSIONS: Baseline HRQoL, depression and BMI should be systematically assessed before starting the antiviral therapy for early detection and the improvement of the impairment before the initiation of therapy. Anxiety should be frequently assessed and followed up through the course of antiviral therapy. The triple group required more nursing and practitioner attention due to increased anxiety levels and impaired HRQoL during the treatment therapy.

Mabrouk, M., G. Esmat, A. Yosry, M. El-Serafy, W. Doss, N. Zayed, M. El-Sahhar, S. Awny, and A. Omar, "Health-related quality of life in Egyptian patients after liver transplantation.", Annals of hepatology, vol. 11, issue 6, pp. 882-90, 2012 Nov-Dec. Abstract

UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION-AIM: Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become an important focus of patient care and clinical outcomes research with the improvement in patient and graft survival after liver transplantation (LT). The current study was designed to evaluate the post-transplant HRQOL profiles using the Liver Disease Quality of Life 1.0 (LDQOL 1.0) Questionnaire and demonstrate the possible effect of peri-transplant clinical covariates on these profiles.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants included pre-transplant group (waiting-list patients n = 50) and post-transplant group (mean 5 ± 4 years after deceased or living donor LT n = 103) who were recruited from 3 specialized centers in Egypt. We applied the LDQOL 1.0 questionnaire; a 111-item containing the Short Form-36 version 2.0 (SF-36v2) as a generic component supplemented by 75 disease-specific items. The etiology of cirrhosis, co-morbidities, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Child-Pugh class and post-operative complications were analyzed.

RESULTS: All recipients had significant higher HRQOL scores than patients in waiting-list using both questionnaire components. Recipients with pre-LT MELD ≥ 15, Child-Pugh class C, history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) demonstrated low HRQOL scores. Recipients without post-operative surgical complications had a statistically better HRQOL using the disease-specific, but not the SF-36v2 component. On the other hand, both components demonstrated non-significant lower scores in recipients with rejection episodes, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and hepatitis C recurrence had compared to those without medical complications.

CONCLUSION: Generally HRQOL improves dramatically after LT as assessed by LDQOL questionnaire. Moreover, combined questionnaires can provide accurate information about the possible impaired HRQOL post-LT due to pre-transplant disease severity and post-operative complications.

Mabrouk, M., G. Esmat, A. Yosry, M. El-Serafy, W. Doss, N. Zayed, M. El-Sahhar, S. Awny, and A. Omar, "Health-related quality of life in Egyptian patients after liver transplantation.", Annals of hepatology, vol. 11, issue 6, pp. 882-90, 2012 Nov-Dec. Abstract

UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION-AIM: Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become an important focus of patient care and clinical outcomes research with the improvement in patient and graft survival after liver transplantation (LT). The current study was designed to evaluate the post-transplant HRQOL profiles using the Liver Disease Quality of Life 1.0 (LDQOL 1.0) Questionnaire and demonstrate the possible effect of peri-transplant clinical covariates on these profiles.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants included pre-transplant group (waiting-list patients n = 50) and post-transplant group (mean 5 ± 4 years after deceased or living donor LT n = 103) who were recruited from 3 specialized centers in Egypt. We applied the LDQOL 1.0 questionnaire; a 111-item containing the Short Form-36 version 2.0 (SF-36v2) as a generic component supplemented by 75 disease-specific items. The etiology of cirrhosis, co-morbidities, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Child-Pugh class and post-operative complications were analyzed.

RESULTS: All recipients had significant higher HRQOL scores than patients in waiting-list using both questionnaire components. Recipients with pre-LT MELD ≥ 15, Child-Pugh class C, history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) demonstrated low HRQOL scores. Recipients without post-operative surgical complications had a statistically better HRQOL using the disease-specific, but not the SF-36v2 component. On the other hand, both components demonstrated non-significant lower scores in recipients with rejection episodes, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and hepatitis C recurrence had compared to those without medical complications.

CONCLUSION: Generally HRQOL improves dramatically after LT as assessed by LDQOL questionnaire. Moreover, combined questionnaires can provide accurate information about the possible impaired HRQOL post-LT due to pre-transplant disease severity and post-operative complications.

Mabrouk, M., G. Esmat, A. Yosry, M. El-Serafy, W. Doss, N. Zayed, M. El-Sahhar, S. Awny, and A. Omar, "Health-related quality of life in Egyptian patients after liver transplantation", ANNALS OF HEPATOLOGY, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 882-890, NOV-DEC, 2012. Abstract
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Mabrouk, M., G.Esmat, A. Yosry, M.El-Serafy, W. Doss, N. Zayed, M. EL-Sahhar, A. O. S. Awny, and A. Omar, "Health-related quality of life in Egyptian patients after liver transplantation", Annals of Hematology, vol. 11, issue 6, pp. 882-90., 2012.
El-Anwar, N., M. El-Shabrawi, O. O. Shahin, R. Abdel Kareem, A. M. Salama, and sherif Baroudy, "Health-related quality of life and cognitive function in children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1.", Paediatrics and international child health, vol. 44, issue 1, pp. 18-23, 2024. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and cognitive function in patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and its impact on their lives.

METHODS: Twenty-one patients diagnosed with CNS type I aged 1 month to 18 years in the Paediatric Hepatology Unit of Cairo University Children's Hospital were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. The patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality Of Life BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Cognitive function was assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fifth Edition (SB5).

RESULTS: All patients had a history of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, 17 were managed by phototherapy only and 5 also underwent exchange transfusion. According to the WHOQOL questionnaire, 11 cases (52.4%) had a low QOL score, and 7 of 13 patients had an average score for their total IQ test. Cases with poor compliance to phototherapy had statistically significantly lower QOL scores (=0.001), while, according to the SF36 survey, cases who received exchange transfusion had statistically significantly higher cognitive function (=0.03). There was a positive correlation between the neurological effect as a complication of the disease and poor physical QOL.

CONCLUSION: Paediatric patients with CNS have significantly lower HRQOL, especially physically, psychologically and environmentally. It is recommended that assessment of HRQOL should be a routine part of follow-up in CNS patients. Patients whose HRQOL is affected receive regular psychiatric counselling, social support and rehabilitation. CNS: Crigler-Najjar syndrome; HRQOL: health-related quality of life; IQ: intelligence quotient; NICU: neonatal intensive care unit; QOL: quality of life; SB5: Stanford-Binet intelligence scale: 5th edition; SF-36: Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire; UDGT: uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase; UGT1A1: uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase; WHOQOL-BREF: World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version.

Aboul Enien, M., N. Y. Ibrahim, W. Makar, D. Darwish, and M. Gaber, "Health- related quality of life:Impact of surgery and treatment modality in breast cancer", journal of cancer research and therapeutics, vol. 14, issue 5, pp. 957-963, 2018. jcanresther145957-8715354_022515.pdf