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Nagi, M. M., P. D. H. A. Sami, and D. L. A. S. El-Dein, Diagnosis of abdominal trauma using MDCT reformations: findings and pitfalls, , cairo, cairo, 2009.
Amin, M. A., ahmed i elbadry, D. S. A. Fatah, and ahmed y hassan, DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL PERITONITIS BY IDENTIFICATION OF 16s rRNA GENES VIA POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR), , 2015.
Ahmed, D. J., D. W. Mousa, D. E. Yassin, and D. N. Hanafy, Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica/ dispar Using Conventional and Molecular Techniques, , cairo, cairo, 2013.
EL-Samee, A. E. - M. A. A., Diagnostic aids by using renal function tests in camels in health and disease., , Giza, Cairo University, 1990.
Salem, N. Y., Diagnostic and Therapeutic Studies on Fevers and Dehydration in Dogs, , Giza, Cairo University, 2012.
Fouad, A. M., W. M. Aref, M. M. Fathi, and M. G. Omar, Diagnostic Significance of plasma osteopontin in hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma, , cairo, Cairo university, 2013. abstract.pdf
Alabrak, Abdel Hamid, S.S., Tahoun, A., and Ayoub, Diagnostic value of grey zone breast cytology And it's impact on patient's managment in triple approach , , Cairo, Cairo University , 2016.
Alabrak, Abdel Hamid, S.S., Tahoun, A., and Ayoub, Diagnostic value of grey zone breast cytology And it's impact on patient's managment in triple approach , , Cairo, Cairo University , 2016.
Alabrak, Abdel Hamid, S.S., Tahoun, A., and Ayoub, Diagnostic value of grey zone breast cytology And it's impact on patient's managment in triple approach , , Cairo, Cairo University , 2016.
samar Fahmy, F., and M. Mattar, diagnostic value of p-selectin in diagnosis of DVT, , Giza, Cairo univ , 2012.
Sayed, M., H. Okasha, H. Hussien, M. A. L. Sharkawy, R. F. Salam, W. A. Nabaoy, and M. S. M, Diagnostic Value of Sonography, FNAC and Genetic Alteration in Diagnosis of Malignant Thyroid Nodules, , Giza, Cairo univ , 2015. Abstractabstract-template.pdf

Background:-Thyroid nodule is common, malignancies found in ≈ 9-15% of the nodules evaluated with FNAB (1). High resolution US and FNAB are the most important steps in diagnostic workup of thyroid nodule. 20–40% of FNABs yield undetermined cytology (2). Surgery is required in indeterminate FNAB, but only quarter of them prove to be malignant after surgery (3), so 77% underwent unneeded surgery. so, finding a mean to diagnose malignant nodule preoperative is important. advances in molecular genetics can be applied to develop a new diagnostic markers for FNA samples.Objective:- evaluating the diagnostic value of high resolution U/S, FNAC, and BRAFV600 in diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules. Patients and Methodology: 50 patients from Kasr alainy endocrine outpatient clinic with solitary or multiple thyroid nodules, All subjected to Full history and examination, thyroid profile, high resolution neck U/S, U/S guided FNAC and BRAFV600E analysis on FNAB using DNA sequencing then HRMA for confirmation Results: - The incidence of BRAFV600E mutation among PTC patients was 55.6%, P value < 0.001. The sensitivity of BRAFV600E mutation was 42.9%, specificity was 100%. Ultrasound sensitivity in detecting malignancy was 88.2%, specificity 72.7%. Addition of ultrasonography to BRAFV600E analysis increased ultrasound sensitivity in detecting PTC preoperative to 92%.There was a positive correlation between most suspicious ultrasonography findings and presence of BRAFV600E mutation (increased AP/T diameter, Increase intra-nodular blood flow, cervical lymphadenopathy, absent or incomplete halo (all p value < 0.001), irregular border p value 0.004 , micro calcifications p value 0.007.
Conclusion1-High resolution US and FNAB are the most important steps in diagnosis of thyroid nodule.2-BRAFV600E mutation detected mainly in PTC.3- Adding BRAFV600E analysis to U/S and FNA will increase the sensitivity of preoperative diagnosis of PTC especially in indefinite nodules. 4-BRAFV600E positivity was associated with most known suspicious U/S finding and significantly present in cases with cervical lymphadenopathy that may give it a prognostic value.5-HRMA is simple, accurate, low cost tool for BRAFV600E analysis.

H.A.Y.Nada, I. N. El-Ebrashi, H.A.G.El-Din, and H. S. Ael- A. Assal, Diagnostic value of urinary Smad1 in diabetic nephropathy patients, , Cairo, Cairo, 2016.
RAWASH, A. H. M. E. D. A. R. A. F. A., A. Hussein, and G. Eltagy, different management of ILEAL atresia, , GIZA, CAIRO, 2014. different_management_of_ileal_atresia.pdf
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